Book chapter

Economic inequality in Germany, 1500-1800

Ulrich Pfister
University of Münster, Germany


ABOUT THIS CHAPTER

The chapter reviews existing evidence regarding four aspects of economic inequality: relative factor rents, which relate to the factorial distribution of income and also underlie the so-called Williamson index (y/wus), which is correlated with the Gini index of household income; real inequality in terms of opposite movements of the price of consumer baskets consumed by different strata of society; the inequality of pay according to gender and skill, as well as between town and countryside; and wealth inequality, particularly with respect to the access to land. The main result is that, with given technology and agrarian institutions, there is a positive correlation between population and inequality.
Read more

Keywords: economic inequality, economic history, germany, pre-industrial age

Formats

PDF

Pages: 301-324

Published by: Firenze University Press

Publication year: 2020

DOI: 10.36253/978-88-5518-053-5.20

Download PDF

© 2020 Author(s)
Content licence CC BY 4.0
Metadata licence CC0 1.0

XML

Publication year: 2020

DOI: 10.36253/978-88-5518-053-5.20

Download XML

© 2020 Author(s)
Content licence CC BY 4.0
Metadata licence CC0 1.0

References

  1. Achilles W. (1982), Die Lage der hannoverschen Landbevölkerung im späten 18. Jahrhundert, Hildesheim.
  2. Albers H., Pfister U. and Uebele M. (2018), The great moderation of grain price volatility: market integration vs. climate change, Germany, 1650-1790,«EHES Working Papers in Economic History», 135.
  3. Alfani G., Schaff F. and Gierok V. (2018), Economic inequality in pre-industrial Germany: a long-run view (fourteenth to nineteenth centuries), manuscript.
  4. Allen R.C. (1982), The efficiency and distributional consequences of eighteenth century enclosures, «Economic Journal», 92, 368: 937-953.
  5. Álvarez-Nogal C. and Prados de la Escosura L. (2013), The rise and fall of Spain (1270-1850), «Economic History Review», 66, 1: 1-37.
  6. Bartels C. (2018), Top incomes in Germany, 1871-2014, «IZA Discussion Paper», 11839.
  7. Baten J. and van Zanden J.L. (2008), Book production and the onset of early modern growth, «Journal of Economic Growth», 13, 3: 217-235.
  8. Beck R. (1993), Unterfinning: Ländliche Welt vor Anbruch der Moderne, München.
  9. Blaschke K. (1967), Bevölkerungsgeschichte von Sachsen bis zur industriellen Revolution, Weimar.
  10. Bork H. R., Bork H, Dalchow C., Faust B., Piorr H.-P. And Schatz T. (1998), Landschaftsentwicklung in Mitteleuropa: Wirkungen des Menschen auf Landschaften, Gotha.
  11. Bracht J. and Pfister U. (2020), Landpacht, Marktgesellschaft und Agrarentwicklung: Fünf Adelsgüter zwischen Rhein und Weser, 16.-19. Jahrhundert, Stuttgart.
  12. Burhop C. and Wolff G. (2005), A compromise estimate of German net national product, 1851–1913 and its implications for growth and business cycles, «Journal of Economic History», 65, 3: 613-657.
  13. Clark G. (2002), Land rental values and the agrarian economy: England and Wales, 1500-1914, «European Review of Economic History», 6, 3: 281-308.
  14. Clark G. (2010), The Macroeconomic Aggregates for England, 1209-1869, «Research in Economic History», 27: 51-140.
  15. Conze W. (1954), Vom «Pöbel» zum «Proletariat», «Vierteljahrschrift für Sozial- und Wirtschaftsgeschichte», 41, 4: 333-364.
  16. de Pleijt A.M. and van Zanden J.L. (2016), Accounting for the ‘Little Divergence’: what drove economic growth in pre-industrial Europe, 1300-1800?, «European Review of Economic History», 20, 4: 387-409.
  17. de Pleijt A.M. and van Zanden J.L. (2018), Two worlds of female labour: gender wage inequality in Western Europe, 1300-1800, «EHES Working Paper in Economic History», 138.
  18. Denzel M.A. (1996), Die Integration Deutschlands in das internationale Zahlungsverkehrssystem im 17. und 18. Jahrhundert, in Schremmer E. (ed.), Wirtschaftliche und soziale Integration in historischer Sicht, Stuttgart: 58-109.
  19. Dumke R. (1991), Income inequality and industrialization in Germany, 1850-1913: the Kuznets hypothesis re-examined, in Brenner Y. S., Kaelble H. and Thomas M. (eds.), Income distribution in historical perspective, Cambridge: 117-148.
  20. Elsas M.L. (1936-1949), Umriss einer Geschichte der Preise und Löhne in Deutschland vom ausgehenden Mittelalter bis zum Beginn des neunzehnten Jahrhunderts, 3 vols., Leiden.
  21. Epstein S.R. (1998), Craft guilds, apprenticeship and technological change in pre-industrial Europe, «Journal of Economic History», 58, 3: 684-713.
  22. Fertig G., Schlöder C., Gehrmann R., Langfeldt C. and Pfister U. (2018), Das postmalthusianische Zeitalter: Die Bevölkerungsentwicklung in Deutschland, 1815-1871, «Vierteljahrschrift für Sozial- und Wirtschaftsgeschichte», 105, 1: 6-33.
  23. Gerhard H.J. (1978), Diensteinkommen der Göttinger Officianten 1750-1850, Göttingen.
  24. Goodman L.A. (1972), A general model for the analysis of surveys, «American Journal of Sociology», 77, 6: 1035-1086.
  25. Hoffman P.T., Jacks D.S., Levin P.A. and Lindert P.H. (2002), Real inequality in Europe since 1500, «Journal of Economic History», 62, 2: 322-355.
  26. Kaufhold K.H. (1986), Gewerbelandschaften in der frühen Neuzeit (1650-1800), in Pohl H. (ed.), Gewerbe- und Industrielandschaften vom Spätmittelalter bis ins 20. Jahrhundert, Stuttgart: 112-202.
  27. Kuznets S. (1955), Economic growth and income inequality, «American Economic Review», 45, 1: 1-28.
  28. Melton E. (1988), Gutsherrschaft in East Elbian Germany and Livonia 1500-1800: a critique of the model, «Central European History», 21, 4: 315-349.
  29. Milanovic B. (2018), Towards an explanation of inequality in premodern societies: the role of colonies, urbanization, and high population density, «Economic History Review», 71, 4: 1029-1047.
  30. Mooser J. (1984), Ländliche Klassengesellschaft 1770-1848: Bauern und Unter­schichten, Landwirtschaft und Gewerbe im östlichen Westfalen, Göttingen.
  31. Ogilvie S.C. (1996), The beginnings of industrialization, in Id. (ed.), Germany: a new social and economic history, Vol. II, 1630-1800, London: 263-308.
  32. Ogilvie S.C. (2003), A bitter living: women, markets, and social capital in early modern Germany, Oxford.
  33. Pfister U. (2011), Economic growth in Germany, 1500-1850, unpublished contribution to the “Quantifying long run economic development conference”, University of Warwick in Venice, 22–24 March, <https://www.wiwi.uni-muenster.de/wisoge/sites/wisoge/files/downloads/aktuelle-Projekte/growth_venice_2011.pdf> [05/20]
  34. Pfister U. (2017), The timing and pattern of real wage divergence in pre-industrial Europe: evidence from Germany, c. 1500-1850, «Economic History Review», 70, 3: 701-729.
  35. Pfister U. (2019), The inequality of pay in pre-modern Germany, late 15th century to 1889, «Jahrbuch für Wirtschaftsgeschichte», 60, 1: 209-243.
  36. Pfister U. and Fertig G. (2010), The population history of Germany: research agenda and preliminary results, «MPIDR Working Paper», WP 2010-035.
  37. Prados de la Escosura L. (2008), Inequality, poverty and the Kuznets curve in Spain, «European Economic History Review», 12, 3: 287-324.
  38. Reith R. (2002), Zünfte im Süden des Alten Reiches: Politische, wirtschaftliche und soziale Aspekte, in Haupt H-G. (ed.), Das Ende der Zünfte: ein europäischer Vergleich, Göttingen.
  39. Reith R. and Reininghaus W. (2002), Zünfte und Zunftpolitik in Westfalen und im Rheinland am Ende des Alten Reiches, in Haupt H-G. (ed.), Das Ende der Zünfte: ein europäischer Vergleich, Göttingen: 71-86.
  40. Sabean D.W. (1990), Property, production and family in Neckarhausen, 1700-1870, Cambridge.
  41. Schindling A. (1988), Schulen und Universitäten im 16. und 17. Jahrhundert: Zehn Thesen zu Bildungsexpansion, Laienbildung und Konfessionalisierung nach der Reformation, in Brandmüller W. et al. (eds.), Ecclesia militans: Studien zur Konzilien- und Reformationsgeschichte (=Festschrift Remigius Bäumer), Paderborn, vol. 2: 561-570.
  42. Schindling A. (19992), Bildung und Wissenschaft in der Frühen Neuzeit, 1650-1800, München.
  43. Schlumbohm J. (1991), Social differences in age at marriage: examples from rural Germany during the xviiith and xixth centuries, in Historiens et populations (=Liber Amicorum Étienne Hélin), Louvain-la-Neuve.
  44. Schlumbohm J. (1994), Lebensläufe, Familien, Höfe: Die Bauern und Heuerleute des osnabrückischen Kirchspiels Belm in proto-industrieller Zeit, 1650-1860, Göttingen.
  45. Sreenivasan G.P. (2004), The peasants of Ottobeuren, 1487-1726: a rural society in early modern Europe, Cambridge.
  46. Tilly C. and Tilly R. (1971), Agenda for European economic history, «Journal of Economic History», 31, 1: 184-198.
  47. Tilly R. (2010), The distribution of personal income in Prussia, 1852 to 1875: an exploratory study, «Jahrbuch für Wirtschaftsgeschichte», 51, 1: 175-194.
  48. Troßbach W. and Zimmermann C. (2006), Die Geschichte des Dorfes, Stuttgart.
  49. van Zanden J.L. (1995), Tracing the beginning of the Kuznets curve: Western Europe during the early modern period, «Economic History Review», 48, 4: 643-664.
  50. van Zanden J.L. (2009), The skill premium and the ‘Great Divergence’, «European Review of Economic History», 13, 1: 121-153.
  51. van Zanden J.L., Baten J., Foldvari P. and van Leeuwen B. (2014), The changing shape of global inequality 1820-2000, «Review of Income and Wealth», 60, 2: 279-297.
  52. Wiesner M.E. (1986), Working women in Renaissance Germany, New Brunswick, NJ.
  53. Williamson J.G. (1998), Growth, distribution, and demography: some lessons from history, «Explorations in Economic History», 35, 3: 241-271.
  54. Wissel R. (1929-1931), Des alten Handwerks Recht und Gewohnheit, 2 Vols., Berlin.

Export citation

Selected format

Usage statistics policy

  • 17Chapter Downloads

Cita come:
Pfister, U.; 2020; Economic inequality in Germany, 1500-1800. Firenze, Firenze University Press.


Distributori


Indici e aggregatori bibliometrici