Book chapter

Le sfide globali dell’era odierna da assumere come coordinate generali

Mauro Lombardi
University of Florence, Italy - ORCID: 0000-0002-3234-7039


In an era characterized by uncertainty and complexity efforts must be increased to define general coordinates on which to base medium-long term strategies. To this end, it is reasonable to start with the precise identification of global challenges and then define the appropriate theoretical and operational tools to face them. Indeed this chapter deals with topics concerning the following trends: 1) smart manufacturing. 2) Constraints deriving from limited basic natural resources (water, energy, food). 3) Potentialities and risks of artificial intelligence developments. 4) Changes in the workplace as a result of the increasing use of AI. 5) Suggestions on how to rethink work through two trajectories and one operational trail.
Read more

Keywords: Global challenges and general coordinates for strategizing, decision making, and implementing innovative actions



Pages: 55-87

Published by: Firenze University Press

Publication year: 2021

DOI: 10.36253/978-88-5518-310-9.06

Download PDF

© 2021 Author(s)
Content licence CC BY 4.0
Metadata licence CC0 1.0


Publication year: 2021

DOI: 10.36253/978-88-5518-310-9.06

Download XML

© 2021 Author(s)
Content licence CC BY 4.0
Metadata licence CC0 1.0


  1. Aboelnga, H.T. et al. 2018. The Water-Energy_Food Security Nexus. Bonn: GIZ.
  2. Adner, R., e R. Kapoor. 2016. “Right Tech Wrong Time.” Harvard Business Review, November.
  3. Albrecht, T.R. 2017. “The Water-Energy-Food Nexus: A systematic review of methods for nexus assessment.”  Environ. Res. Lett. 13.
  4. AlGeddawy, T. e H. ElMaraghy. 2011. “Manufacturing systems synthesis using knowledge discovery.” CIRP Annals – Manufacturing Technology 60: 437-40.
  5. Andersen, A.L. et al. 2016. “Reconfigurable Manufacturing – An Enabler for a Production System Portfolio Approach.” Procedia CIRP 52: 139-44.
  6. Andoni, M. et al. 2019. “Blockchain technology in the energy sector: A systematic review of challenges and opportunities.” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Review 100: 143-74.
  7. Anzalone et al. 2019. “Search-and-replace genome editing without double-strand breaks or donor DNA.” Nature December 5, 576: 149-178.
  8. Bardi, U. 2011. The Limits to Growth Revisite. New York: Springer.
  9. Beddington, J. 2009. Food, Energy, Water and the Climate Change: A Perfect Storm of Global Events?. London: Government Office for Science.
  10. Bergstein, B. 2017. “The Great AI Paradox.” Technology Review <> (2021-03-10).
  11. Bortolini, M. et al. 2019. “Implementation of Reconfigurable Manufacturing in the Italian Context: State-of-the-Art and Trends.” Procedia Manufacturing 39: 591-98.
  12. Boulding, K.E. 1966. “The Economics of the Coming Spaceship Earth.” <> (2021-10-03).
  13. Buenstorf, G. 2005. “Sequential production, modularity and technological change.” Structural Change and Economic Dynamics 16: 221-41.
  14. Cohen, Y. et al. 2017. “Assembly system configuration through Industry 4.0 principles: the expected change in the actual paradigms.” IFAC Papers OnLine 50: 14958-963.
  15. Cohen, Y. et al. 2019. “Design and management of digital manufacturing and assembly systems in the Industry 4.0 era.” International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology 105: 3565-77. 10.1007/s00170-019-04595-0
  16. D’Aveni, R. 2007. “Mapping your competitive position.” Harvard Business Review, November: 110-20.
  17. Dee, M., ed. by. 2015, The European Union in a Multipolar World – World Trade, Global Governance and the Case of the WTO. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
  18. ElMaraghy, H. et al. 2012. “Complexity in engineering design and manufacturing.” CIRP Annals 61 (2): 793-814.
  19. Evans-Greenwood, P., Lewis, H. e J. Guszcza. 2017. “Automation, artificial intelligence, and the essential role of humans.” Deloitte Review 21: 127-145.
  20. Fairley, P. 2019. “Ethereum Plans to Cut Its Absurd Energy Consumption by 99 Percent.” IEEE Spectrum» January 2.
  21. Flockhart, T. 2016. “The coming multi-order world.” Contemporary Security Policy 37 (1): 3-30. 10.1080/13523260.2016.1150053
  22. Foray, D., David, P.A., e B. Hall. 2009. “Smart Specialization – The Concept.” Knowledge Economists Policy Brief 9, June.
  23. Franklin, D. 2020. “America needs to invest more in diplomacy.” The Economist, 17 November, 2020.
  24. Frey, C.B., e M.A. Osborne. 2013. The Future of Employment: How Susceptible Are Jobs to Computerisation? Oxford: Oxford Martin School.
  25. Geels, F.W. et al. 2017. “Sociotechnical transitions for deep decarbonization.” Science, 22 September.
  26. Hoff, H. 2011. Understanding the nexus. Background paper for the Bonn2011 Conference: the Water. Stockholm: Energy and Food Security Nexus, Stockholm Environment Institute <
  27. Hutt, R. 2016. What are the 10 biggest global challenges? <>, WEF, January 21 (2021-10-03).
  28. Gitelman, L., ed. by. 2013. Raw Data is an Oxymoron. New York: The MIT Press.
  29. Keairns, D.L. et al. 2016. “The Energy-Water-Food Nexus.” Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering 7: 239-62.
  30. Kobie, N. 2019. “The complicated truth about China’s social credit system.” Wired, June, 2019.
  31. IDA. 2012. Emerging global trends in Advanced Manufacturing. USA.
  32. IEA. 2012. “World Energy Outlook.” <> (2021-03-10).
  33. IEA. 2020. “Global trends in internet traffic, data centre workloads and data centre energy use, 2015-2021.” <> (202
  34. Jovane, F., Westkmper, E., e D. Williams. 2008. “The ManuFuture Road to High-Adding-Value Competitive Sustainable Manufacturing.” In The Manufuture Road: towards Competitive and Sustainable High Adding-Value Manufacturing, ed. by F. Jovane, E. Westkamper,
  35. Jovane, F. et al. 2008. “The incoming global technological and industrial revolution towards competitive sustainable manufacturing.” CIRP Annals – Manufacturing Technology 57: 641-59.
  36. Leroi-Gourhan, A., 1977. Il Gesto e la Parola. Torino: Einaudi.
  37. Lessig, L. 2006. Code is Law. Version 2.0. New York: Basic Books.
  38. Lessig, L. “Code is Law.” <> (2021-03-10).
  39. Li, Z. et al. 2019. “Blockchain for decentralized transactive energy management system in networked microgrids.” The Electric Journal 32: 58-72.
  40. Markoff, J. 2012. “How Many Computers to Identify a Cat? 16,000.” The New York Times, June 25.
  41. McCarthy, J. et al. 1955. “A Proposal for the Darmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence.” AI Magazine 27 (4).
  42. McCarrthy, N. 2021. “Births Plummet In China As Population Growth Stalls.” <> (2021-10-03).
  43. MGI. 2020. How a post-pandemic stimulus can both create jobs and help the climate, May.
  44. Mlodinov, L. 2012. Subliminal: The New Unconscious and What it Teaches Us. New York: Pantheon Books.
  45. Mlodinov, L. 2015. The Upright Thinkers. The Human Journey from Living in Trees to Understanding the Cosmos. New York: Pantheon Books.
  46. Morozov, E. 2015. “Socialize The Data Centre!” New Left Review 91, January-February, 2015.
  47. Mulgan, G. 2014. “Innovation in the Public Sector. How can Public Organizations better create, improve and adapt?” Nesta 5 (1).
  48. Naughton, J. 2019. “Can the planet really afford the exorbitant power demands of machine learning?” The Guardian, November 16.
  49. Olson, S. 2012a. Making Things: 21st Century Manufacturing and Design. Summary of a Forum.
  50. Olson S. 2012b. Making Value: Integrating Manufacturing, Design, and Innovation to Thrive in the Changing Global Economy. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
  51. OpenAI. 2019. “AI and Compute.” <> (2021-10-03).
  52. Pham, G.C., Madhavan, R., Righetti, I., Smart, W., e R. Chatila. 2018. “The Impact of Robotics and Automation on Working Conditions and Employment.” IEE Robotics & Automation Magazine 125-128.
  53. Pogančić, M.V. 2019. “The Carbon Footprint of AI Research.” Towards Data Science, October 1.
  54. Prieto, G.J. et al. 2019. Smart Specialisation in the world, an EU policy approach helping to discover innovation globally. JRC Science for Policy Report.
  55. Rip, A. 1995. “Introduction of New Technology: Making Use of Recent Insights from Sociology and Economics of Technology.” Technology Analysis & Strategic Management 7 (4): 417-431.
  56. Rodriguez, D.J. et al. 2013. Thirsty Energy, Water Partnership Program. Washington, DC: World Bank.
  57. Rosenberg, M.Y. 2019. “Experts Get Multipolarity All Wrong.” Foreign Affairs, June 24, 2019.
  58. RSA. 2019. The “Four Futures of Work Coping with uncertainty in an age of radical technologies.” <> (2021-03-10).
  59. Rumelhart, D.E., e J.L. McLelland. 1986. Parallel Distributed Processing. New York: The MIT Press.
  60. Sachs, J.D. 2016. “Learning to Love a Multipolar World.” Project Syndicate, 29 December, 2016.
  61. Sahlin, M. 2000. A systematic approach for decision making in a concurrent design, Proceedings of ICAD2000 First International Conference on Axiomatic Design <> (2021-03-10).
  62. Saunders, T., e G. Mulgan. 2017. “Governing with Collective Intelligence.” Nesta, January <> (2010-10-03).
  63. Schaefer, K.A. et al. 2017. “Unintended mutations after CRISPR_Cas9 editing in vivo.” Nature Methods, 14 (6): 547-551.
  64. Schwartz, J. et al. 2019. “What is the future of work. Redefining work, workforces, and workplaces.” Deloitte Insights <> (2021-03-10).
  65. Simon H.A. 1957. Models of Man. New Jersey: John Wiley& Sons.
  66. Simpson, G.B., e G.P.W. Jewitt. 2019. “The Development of the Water-Energy-Food Nexus as a Framework for Achieving Resource Security: A Review.” Frontiers in Environmental Science, February 8: 1-9.
  67. SMLC. 2011. Implementing 21st Century Smart Manufacturing. Workshop Summary Report. Paper read at 21st Century Smart Manufacturing Workshop, at Washington, DC.
  68. SPM. 2009. Operations & Technology Roadmap Full Report. Section 2.0 Smart Process Manufacturing and the Business Transformation v4 (l I I 24 I 2009).
  69. Storm, D. 2015. “ACLU: Orwellian Citizen Score, China’s credit score system, is a warning for Americans.” Computer World, 27 October, 2015.
  70. Strubell, E. et al. 2019. “Energy and Policy Considerations for Deep Learning in NLP.” arXiv:1906.02243v1 [cs.CL], June 5.
  71. Summers, J.D., e J.J. Shah. 2010. “Mechanical Engineering Design Complexity Metrics: Size, Coupling, and Solvability.” Journal of Mechanical Design 132, February.
  72. Sze, V. et al. 2017. “Efficient Processing of Deep Neural Networks: A Tutorial and Survey.” Proceedings of the IEEE 105 (12).
  73. Ten Brinke, L., e B. Martill. 2019. “Coping with Multipolarity: EU Values and the Stability of International Order.” Dahrendorf Forum IV Working Paper No. 11, August.
  74. The Millenium Project – Global Futures Studies and Researches, “The Millenium Project.”, <> (2021-03-10).
  75. Tomiyama, T. et al. 2007. “Complexity of Multi-Disciplinary Design.” Annals of the CIRP 56 (1): 185-88.
  76. Ueda, K. et al. 2001, “Emergent Synthesis Methodologies for Manufacturing.” CIRP Annals – Manufacturing Technology 50 (2): 535-51.
  77. UN. 2015. “Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.” <> (2021-03-10).
  78. UN, “Global Issues Overview.” <> (2021-03-10).
  79. Victor, D.G. 2019. How Artificial Intelligence can affect the future of energy and climate, Brookings Institutions, January 10, contributo nell’ambito di A Blueprint for the Future of AI: 2018-2019.
  80. Von Neumann, J. 1966. Theory of Self-Reproducing Automata, edited and completed by A.W. Burks. Champaign: University of Illinois Press.
  81. Xu Elegant, N. 2019. “The Internet Cloud has a Dirty Secret”., September 18.
  82. Westkämper, B. 2007. “Strategic Development of Factories under the Influence of Emergent Technologies.” CIRP Annals – Manufacturing Technology 56 (1): 419-22.
  83. Walter, W.G. 1951. “A Machine That Learns.” Scientific American May, 1951: 60-63.
  84. Wiener, N. 1948. Cybernetics-or-the Art of-Control-and-Communication-in-the Animal and the Machine. New York: The MIT Press.
  85. World Bank. 2011. “Global Development Horizon: Multipolarity – The New Global Economy.” <

Export citation

Selected format

Usage statistics policy

  • 11Chapter Downloads

Cita come:
Lombardi, M.; 2021; Le sfide globali dell’era odierna da assumere come coordinate generali. Firenze, Firenze University Press.


Indici e aggregatori bibliometrici