Book chapter

XXI secolo: l’universo fisico-cibernetico e le grandi sfide emergenti

Mauro Lombardi
University of Florence, Italy - ORCID: 0000-0002-3234-7039


In this chapter we outline the cyber-physical world we entered following the pervasive diffusion of information processing devices that are able to able to interact through exchanging information (cyber-physical systems). In this way ubiquitous computing and ubiquitous connectivity are changing how people think, act and produce. Indeed processes and products are becoming smart and connected on a potentially global level. The possibility of realizing a digital of everything representation from the subatomic level and nanoscale to the astronomical level implies that the physical world is surrounded and pervaded by a digital sphere that interacts with and influences it. Are we in a world like the one hypothesized by Borges' famous paradoxes of the 1: 1 map? The reality Is very different from the imagery Borges’s map: hyperstructures self-organize and emerge, global players act and influence the dynamics of complex adaptive systems.
Read more

Keywords: Cyber-physical systems, Cyber-physical world



Pages: 15-27

Published by: Firenze University Press

Publication year: 2021

DOI: 10.36253/978-88-5518-310-9.03

Download PDF

© 2021 Author(s)
Content licence CC BY 4.0
Metadata licence CC0 1.0


Publication year: 2021

DOI: 10.36253/978-88-5518-310-9.03

Download XML

© 2021 Author(s)
Content licence CC BY 4.0
Metadata licence CC0 1.0


  1. Acatech 2011. Cyber-Physical Systems Driving force for innovation in mobility, health, energy and production. Munich-Berlin: National Academy of Science and Engineering.
  2. Acatech 2017. Additive Manufacturing. Leopoldina, acatech, Akadmienunion.
  3. Baldwin, C.Y, e K.B. Clark. 2020. Design Rule Vol 1s: The Power of Modularity. New York: The Mit Press.
  4. BCG. 2015. Borges’ Map. Navigating a World of Digital Disruption. <> (2021-03-10)
  5. Borges, J.L. 1998. “On Exactitude in Science.” In Borges, J.L. Collected Fictions. New York: Penguin Books.
  6. Braa, J. et al. 2007. “Developing Health Information in Developing Countries: The Flexible Standards Strategy.” MIS Quarterly vol. 31, Special Issue/August: 1-22.
  7. Brownleee, J. 2007. Complex Adaptive Systems. CIS Technical Report 070302, March.
  8. Bundy, A. 2007. Computational Thinking is Pervasive. <> (2021-03-10)
  9. Castells, M. 2010. The Rise of Network Society. vol. 1, Oxford: Basic-Balckwell.
  10. Christian, D. 2017. “What Scientific term or concept ought to be more widely known?” Edge. Org. August 30.
  11. Cowney, P.E., e J.D. Aronson. 2017. Digital DNA disruption and the challenges for global governance. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  12. Crow, D. 2020. “The next virus pandemic is not far away.” Financial Times, 6 August, 2020.
  13. Davis, M. 2000. The Universal Computer. New York: Norton & Company.
  14. Deymier, P.A. et al. 2016. Multiscale Paradigms in Integrated Computational Materials Science and Engineering. New York: Springer.
  15. Folke, C. et al. 1998. Ecological practices and social mechanisms for building resilience and sustainability. In: Linking Social and Ecological Systems: management Practices and Social Mechanisms for building Resilience. ed. by F. Berkes, e C. Folke. Camb
  16. Geisberger, E., e M. Broy. 2015. Living in a networked world. Integrated research agenda Cyber-Physical Systems (agendaCPS) (acatech STUDY). Munich: Herbert Utz Verlag.
  17. Gell-Mann, M. 1995. The Quark and the Jaguar. Adventures in the Simple and the Complex. London: Freeman and Company.
  18. Henderson, R. 2020. “Big tech presents a problem for investors as well as Congress.” Financial Times, August 1.
  19. Henfridsson, O. et al. 2014. “Managing technological change in the digital age: the role of architectural frames.” Journal of Information Technology 29: 27-43.
  20. Henfridsson, O. et al. 2018. “Recombination in the open-ended value landscape of digital innovation.” Information and Organization 28: 89-100.
  21. Holland, J.H. 1992. Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems. Cambridge: The Mit Press.
  22. Holland, J.H. 1995. Hidden Order. How Adaptation Builds Complexity, New York: Basic Books.
  23. Holland, J.H. 2006. “Studying Complex Adaptive Systems.” Journal of Systems Science and Complexity 19: 1-8.
  24. Holling, C.S. 2001. “Understanding the Complexity of Economic, Ecological, and Social Systems.” Ecosystems 4.
  25. Janssen, M. 1998. “Use of Complex Adaptive Systems for Modeling Global Change.” Ecosystems 1: 457-463.
  26. Lee, E.A., e S.A. Seshia. 2011. Introduction to Embedded Systems – A Cyber-Physical Systems Approach. <>.
  27. Lessig, L. 2006. Code is Law. Version 2.0. New York: Basic Books.
  28. Levin, S.A. 1998. “Ecosystems and the Biosphere as Complex Adaptive Systems.” Ecosystems 1: 431-436.
  29. Levin, S.A. 1999. Fragile Dominion. Complexity and the Commons. New York: Perseus Publishing.
  30. Lewars, E.G. 2016. Computational Chemistry. New York: Springer.
  31. Lombardi, M., e S. Vannuccini. Paradigm shift for decision-making in an era of deep and extended changes. Under review.
  32. Mason P., et al., eds. 2017. Proceedings of the 4th World Congress on Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME 2017). New York: Springer.
  33. Mayer Schönberger, V., e T. Ramge. 2018. Reinventare il Capitalismo nell’era dei Big Data. Milano: Egea.
  34. Miller, J.H., e S.E. Page. 2007. Complex Adaptive Systems. An introduction to computational modes of social life. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  35. Ming, J.M. 2008. “Computational thinking and thinking about computing.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A, 366: 3717-3725.
  36. Mitchell, W.M. 1996, CITY OF BITS. Cambridge: The Mit Press.
  37. National Research Council. 2008. Integrated Computational Materials Engineering: A Transformational Discipline for Improved Competitiveness and National Security. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. 10.17226/12199
  38. Ostrom, E. 2009. “A general framework for Analyzing Sustainability of Social-ecological Systems.” Science, July, 419-422.
  39. Popova, M. 2014. “How William Gibson Coined ‘Cyberspace’”. Brain Pickings, August 26, <> (2021-03-10)
  40. Schaefer, K.A. et al. 2017. “Unintended mutations after CRISPR_Cas9 editing in vivo.” Nature Methods, 14 (6): 547-551.
  41. Steffen, W. et al. 2007. “The Anthropocene: Are Humans Now Overwhelming the Great Forces of Nature.” A Journal of the Human Environment 36 (8): 614-621.
  42. US Department of Energy. 2010. Critical Materials Strategy. <> (2021-03-10).
  43. Walter, C. 1986. Adaptive Management of Renewable Resources. New York: MacMillan.
  44. Yoo, Y.  et al. 2010. “The Next Wave of Digital Innovation: Opportunities and Challenges: A Report on the Research Workshop ‘Digital Challenges in Innovation Research’ (June 8, 2010).” <> (2021-03-10).
  45. Zittrain, J.L. 2006. “The Generative Internet.” Harvard Law Review 119 (7): 1974-2040.
  46. Zysman, J., e M. Kelley. 2018. The Next Phase in the Digital Revolution: Intelligent Tools, Platforms, Growth, Employment. Communications of the ACM, vol. 61: 54-63.

Export citation

Selected format

Usage statistics policy

  • 6Chapter Downloads

Cita come:
Lombardi, M.; 2021; XXI secolo: l’universo fisico-cibernetico e le grandi sfide emergenti. Firenze, Firenze University Press.


Indici e aggregatori bibliometrici