Export citation

Selected format

Usage statistics policy

  • 59Full-text Downloads

Download Extras

Cita come:
Pubblici, L.; 2021; Cumani. Firenze, Firenze University Press.


Indici e aggregatori bibliometrici


Migrazioni, strutture di potere e società nell’Eurasia dei nomadi (secoli X-XIII)

Lorenzo Pubblici
SRISA, Santa Reparata International School of Art, Italy - ORCID: 0000-0002-3230-6333

+ More about the authors

FUP Scientific Cloud for Books

© 2021 Author(s)
Published by Firenze University Press

Content licence CC BY 4.0
Metadata licence CC0 1.0

This book is a synthesis of the great migrations of the 6th-13th centuries, focused on the median space between the two extremes of the Eurasian continent: Western Europe and Eastern Asia. In the light of the sources, it aims to reassess the complexity of the relationships between the nomads of the steppes and the sedentarized societies that came into contact with them. The choice to focus on the Qïpčaq-Cumans is due to their history, unique because they never constituted an organized and centralized center of collective power (stateless nomads); and paradigmatic, because it encompasses all the constitutive elements of steppe nomadism: social heterogeneity, mobility, military preparation, attraction for trade and willingness to negotiate. The migrations of the nomads of the steppes and their arrival close to the great organized communities of the Islamic and Christian world, from Asia to Europe, contributed to triggering a process of integration between Asia and the Mediterranean basin, a process that the Mongol invasion and conquest completed, giving birth to a new shared global space.

Questo libro si propone come una sintesi sulle grandi migrazioni dei secoli VI-XIII, concentrandosi sullo spazio mediano fra i due grandi settori del continente eurasiatico: l’Europa Occidentale e l’Asia Orientale, rivalutando alla luce delle fonti la complessità delle relazioni fra i nomadi delle steppe e le società sedentarizzate che con essi entrarono in contatto. La scelta di concentrarsi sui Qïpčaq-Cumani è dovuta alla loro storia, unica perché non costituirono mai un centro di potere collettivo organizzato e centralizzato (stateless nomads); e paradigmatica, poiché racchiude tutti gli elementi costitutivi del nomadismo delle steppe: eterogeneità sociale, mobilità, preparazione militare, attrazione per il commercio e disponibilità alla trattativa. Le migrazioni dei nomadi delle steppe e il loro arrivo a ridosso delle grandi comunità organizzate del mondo islamico e cristiano, dall’Asia all’Europa, hanno contribuito a innescare un processo di integrazione fra l’Asia e il bacino del Mediterraneo, un processo che l’invasione e la conquista mongole completarono dando vita a un nuovo spazio globale condiviso.

Read more

Keywords: Cumans, Steppe Nomads, Central Asian History, Eurasia, Silk Road(s), Kievan Rus’, Byzantine History, History of Islam, Medieval History



Publication year: 2021

Pages: 344

e-ISBN: 978-88-5518-313-0

DOI: 10.36253/978-88-5518-313-0

Download PDF

© 2021 Author(s)
Content licence CC BY 4.0
Metadata licence CC0 1.0


Publication year: 2021

e-ISBN: 978-88-5518-314-7

DOI: 10.36253/978-88-5518-313-0

Download XML

© 2021 Author(s)
Content licence CC BY 4.0
Metadata licence CC0 1.0

  1. Aboulféda (1848), Géograpie d’Aboulféeda, a cura di Joseph Tussaint Reinaud, tome II, première partie, Paris: Imprimerie Nationale.
  2. S.M. Achinžanov, Kypčaki v istorii srednevekovogo Kazachstana, Alma Ata .
  3. Innocentius PP. III (1944), Acta Innocentii PP. III: (1198-1216), a cura di Theodosius Halǔšcynskyj, Città del Vaticano: Tipografia poliglotta.
  4. S.G. Agadžanov (1969), Ocherki istorii Oguzov i Turkmen sredney Azii IX–XIII vv., Ashgabat.
  5. S.G. Agadžanov (1973), Sel’džukidy i Turkmenija v XI-XII vv., Ašchabad.
  6. S.G. Agadžanov (1969), The State of the Oghuz, the Kimek and the Kïpchak, in History of Civilisations of Central Asia, IV: The Age of Achievement: AD 750 to the end of the fifteenth century. Part One: The Historical, social and economic setting, a cura di M.S. Asimov- C.E. Bosworth, Paris , IV/II, pp. 66-73.
  7. M. Angelovska-R. Cacanoska 2016), Historical and Cultural Implications of Bogomilism, "Occasional Papers on Religion in Eastern Europe" 36.4, pp. 37-52.
  8. H. Ahrweiler (1967), Le Charisticariat et les autres formes d’attribution de couvents aux Xe-XIe siècles, "Zbornik Radova Vizantoloskog Instituta", X, pp. 1–27.
  9. H. Ahrweiler (1980), La "pronoia" à Byzance, "Publications de l'École française de Rome" 44.1, pp. 681-689.
  10. M. Aime (2004), Eccessi di culture, Torino.
  11. F. Akbar (1991), The secular roots of religious dissidence in early Islam: the case of the Qaramita of Sawad Al‐Kūfa, "Journal Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs", 12.2, pp. 376-390.
  12. Al-Bīrūnī (1934), The book of instruction of the elements in the art of astrology, a cura di Ramsey Wright, London.
  13. Al-Bīrūnī (2005), L'Arte dell'Astrologia. Il più Completo Trattato di Astrologia della Cultura Islamica, a cura di Giuseppe Bezza, Milano: Mimesis.
  14. Al-Kâšġarî (1982-85), Compendium of the Turkic Dialects (Dîwân Luġat at-Turk), a cura di Robert Dankoff, e James Kelly, Cambridge (MS).
  15. Al-Ma’sūdi (1958), A History of Sharvān and Darband, a cura di Vladimir Minorsky. Cambridge (MS).
  16. Al-Marwazī (1942), Sharaf al-Zamän Tähir Marvazī on China, the Turks and India, a cura di Vladimir Minorsky. London: Royal Asiatic Society.
  17. Al-Tābarī (1989), The History of al-Tabari Vol. 25: The End of Expansion: The Caliphate of Hisham A.D. 724-738/A.H. 105-120, Albany (NY).
  18. A. Comnena, Alessiade, a cura di G. Agnello, Palermo.
  19. W.E.D. Allen (1932), A History of the Georgian People from the Beginning Down to the Russian Conquest in the Nineteenth Century, London.
  20. R.C. Allen-H. Leander (2016), The Collapse of the World’s Oldest Civilization: The Political Economy of Hydraulic State and Financial Crisis of Abbasid Caliphate, Abu Dhabi.
  21. T.T. Allsen (1983), Prelude to the Western Campaigns: Mongol Military Operations in the Volga-Ural Region, 1217-1237, "Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi III, pp. 5-24.
  22. W. Alofs (2015), Studies on Mounted Warfare in Asia IV: The Turanian Tradition-The Horse Archers of Inner Asia, c. CE 550–1350, "War in History" 22-3, pp. 274-297.
  23. R. Amitai-Preiss (1995), Mongols and Mamluks. The Mamluk-Īlkhānid war, 1260-1281, Cambridge.
  24. B. Anderson (2004), Comunità immaginate. Origine e fortuna dei nazionalismi, Roma.
  25. M.J. Angold (1992), L’Impero Bizantino (1025-1204), Napoli.
  26. M.J. Angold (1997), The Byzantine Empire 1025–1204. A political history. London–New York.
  27. M.J. Angold (1999), “The Road to 1204: the Byzantine Background to the Fourth Crusade.” Journal of Medieval History 25, pp. 257-278.
  28. M.J. Angold (2000), Church and Society in Byzantium under the Comneni, 1081-1261. Cambridge: Cambridge Unversity Press.
  29. M.J. Angold (2015), The Fourth Crusade: Event and Context, New York.
  30. D.W Anthony, D.J. Telegin, D.R. Brown (1991), “The Origins of Horseback Riding.” Antiquity 65, pp. 22-38.
  31. Aristakes Lastivertc'i (1985), Aristakes Lastivertc'i's Histories, a cura di Robert Bedrosian, Robert, New York. (03-30-2021).
  32. Aristakes Lastiverts’i (1864), Histoire d'Arménie, comprenant la fin du Royaume d'Ani et le commencement de l'invasion des Seldjoukides, a cura di Benjamin Duprat, Paris.
  33. I. Armour (2012), A History of Eastern Europe 1740-1918: Empires, Nations and Modernisation, London-New York.
  34. R. Hercher, A. Eberhard (1885), Arriani Nicomediensis Scripta Minora, Leipzig.
  35. M.I. Artamonov (2013), Istorija Chazar, rist. Moskva.
  36. J. Assman (1997), La memoria culturale. Scrittura, ricordo e identità politica nelle grandi civiltà antiche, Torino.
  37. D. Ayalon (1951), Le règiment bahrīya dans l’armée mamelouk, "Revue des Études Islamiques" 19, pp. 133–41.
  38. D. Ayalon (1951), The Wafidiya in the Mamluk Kingdom, "Islamic Culture" (1951), pp. 89-104.
  39. D. Ayalon (1953), Studies on the Structure of the Mamluk Army 1, "Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies" 15.2, pp. 203-228.
  40. D. Ayalon (1963), The European-Asiatic Steppe – A Major Reservoir of Power in the Islamic World, in Actes du XXVe Congrès International des Orientalistes, II, Moskva, pp. 47-52.
  41. D. Ayalon (1977), The Emergence of the Mamluk Army, "Studia Islamica" 45, pp. 67-99.
  42. D. Ayalon (1994), From Ayyubids to Mamlūks, in Islam and the Abode of War: Military slaves and Islamic adversaries, Aldershot, pp. 43-57.
  43. C. Azzara (2002), L’Italia dei barbari, Bologna.
  44. S.M. Baba (2013), Origin and History of Volga Bulghārs: A Study of the Journey from Central Asia to Volga-Ural Region and the Formation of Volga Bulghāria, "Journal of Asian Civilizations" 36.1, pp. 189-200.
  45. N. Banescu (1933), La question du Paristrion, "Byzantion" 8, pp. 181-282.
  46. Bar Hebraeus (2003), The Chronography of Gregory Abû'l Faraj, Bar Hebraeus, ed. Wallis Budge, Ellis A., Piscataway (NJ).
  47. T.J. Barfield (1989), The Perilous Frontier: Nomadic Empires and China, 221 BC to AD 1757, Oxford.
  48. T.J. Barfield (1990), Tribe and state relations: The Inner Asian perspective, in Tribes and state formation in the Middle East, a cura di P.S. Khoury and J. Kostiner, Berkeley-Los Angeles, pp. 153-82.
  49. T.D. Barnes (1998), Ammianus Marcellinus and the representation of historical reality, Cornell (NY).
  50. R. Bartlett (1993), The Making of Europe. Conquest, Colonization and Cultural Change. 950-1350, London.
  51. R. Bartlett (2001), gMedieval and Modern Concepts of Race and Ethnicity, "Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies" 31.1, pp. 39-56.
  52. V.V. Bartold (1968), Dvenadcat’ lectij po istorii turekich narodov Srednej Azii in Sočinenija, pp. 17-192, Moskva.
  53. V.V. Bartol’d (1963-73),Izvlečenie iz sočinenija Gardīzī zain al-Akhbār, in Akademik V.V. Bartol’d Sočinenija, 9 voll. Moskva.
  54. V.V. Bartold (1977), Turkestan down to the Mongol Invasion, E.J.W. Gibb Memorial Trust, London.
  55. M.C. Bartusis (2013), Land and Privilege in Byzantium: The Institution of Pronoia, Cambridge-New York.
  56. O.A. Basan (2010), The Great Seljuqs: A History, London-New York.
  57. S. Bastug (1998), The Segmentary Lineage System: A Reappraisal in Changing Nomads in a Changing World. Brighton- Portland, pp. 94-123.
  58. C. Beckwith (2009), Empires of the Silk Road. A History of Central Eurasia from the Bronze Age to the Present, Princeton.
  59. R. Bedrosian (1979), The Turco-Mongol Invasions and the Lords of Armenia in the 13-14th Centuries, New York.
  60. R. Bedrosian (2004), The Flower of Histories of the East (online all’indirizzo Controllato l’8/1/2021.
  61. A.D. Beihammer (2017), Byzantium and the emergence of Muslim-turkish Anatolia, ca.104-1130, New York.
  62. J.H. Bentley (1993), Old World Encounters. Cross-Cultural Contacts and Exchanges in Pre-Modern Times, Oxford-New York.
  63. J.H. Bentley (1996), “Cross-Cultural Interaction and Periodization in World History.” American Historical Review 101, pp. 749-70.
  64. N. Berend (2001), At the Gate of Christendom. Jews, Muslims and ‘Pagans’ in Medieval Hungary, c.1000-1300, Cambridge.
  65. I.N. Berezin, (1858-61), Sbornik letopis’ej. Istoria Mongolov, sočinenie Rašid-Eddina, Travaux SOSRA, t. V.
  66. V. Beševliev (1981), Die protobulgarische Periode der bulgarischen Geschichte, Amsterdam.
  67. T. Bianquis (1972), La prise du pouvoir en Egypte par le Fatimides, "Annales Islamologiques" 11, pp. 50-108.
  68. T. Bianquis (1998), Autonomous Egypt from Ibn Tūluūn to Kāfūr, 868-969, in The Cambridge History of Egypt, vol. I, a cura di M.W. Daly, Cambridge cit., pp. 86-119.
  69. M.V. Bibikov (1980), Istočnikovedčeskie problemy izučenija istorii kočevnikov v Nižem Podunav’e v XII veke, "Revue Roumaine d’Histoire", Bucarest, t. 19, n. 1.
  70. M.V. Bibikov (2001), Vizantijskie istočniki po istorii drevnej Rusi i Kavkaza, Sankt Peterburg.
  71. M. Biran (2005), The Empire of Qara Khitai in Eurasian History Between China and the Islamic World, Cambridge.
  72. M. Biran (2013), Unearthing the Liao Dynasty’s Relations with the Muslim World: Migrations, Diplomacy, Commerce, and Mutual Perceptions, "Journal of Song-Yuan Studies" 43, pp. 221-251.
  73. Al-Biruni (2006), A Bio-bibliography for Biruni: Abu Raihan Mohammad Ibn Ahmad (973-1053 C.E.), a cura di Mohammad Kamiar, Lanham (MD): Scarecrow.
  74. L. Bjerg, J.H. Lind, S.M. Sindbæk (2013) (a cura di), From Goths to Varangians. Communication and Cultural Exchange Between the Baltic and the Black Sea, a cura di L. Bjerg, J.H. Lind, S.M. Sindbæk, Bristol (CT)
  75. E. Blochet (1910), Introduction à l’histoire des Mongols. Leiden-London.
  76. S. Bocci (2011), La frontiera danubiana in Ammiano Marcellino, "Geographia antiqua" 20, pp. 147-152.
  77. J.P. Bocquet-Appel (2011), When the World's Population Took Off: The Springboard of the Neolithic Demographic Transition, "Science" 333, pp. 560–561.
  78. B.O. Bold (2000), Mongolian Nomadic Society: A Reconstruction of the 'Medieval' History of Mongolia, New York.
  79. C.E. Bosworth (1968), The Political and Dynastic History of the Iranian World (A.D. 1000-1217), in The Cambridge History of Iran, V, The Saljuq and Mongol Periods, a cura di J.A. Boyle, Cambridge, pp. 1-202.
  80. C.E. Bosworth (1977), The Later Ghaznavids. Splendour and Decay. The Dinasty in Afghanistan and Northern India, 1040-1186, Edinburgh.
  81. C.E. Bosworth (1986), Kimäk, in Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Consulted online on 11 June 2021 <>.
  82. C.E. Bosworth (2011), The Origins of the Seljuqs, in The Seljuqs. Politics, Society and Culture, a cura di C. Lange-S. Mecit, Edinburgh.
  83. C.E. Bosworth (2012), Isfīdjāb, in Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Consulted online on 11 June 2021 <>.
  84. J. Bouzek-D. Koutecky (2000), The Lusatian Culture in Northwest Bohemia, Ústav archeologické památkové péče severozápadních, Čech.
  85. C.R. Bowlus (1995), Franks, Moravians, and Magyars: the struggle for the Middle Danube, 788-907, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia (PA).
  86. C. Brand (1968), Byzantium Confronts the West, 1180-1204. Cambridge (MA).
  87. W. Brillowski (2017), The Principles of 'ars tactica': Roman Military Theory and Practice in Arrian's 'Acies contra Alanos', in Greek Taktika: Ancient Military Writing and its Heritage, Proceedings of the International Conference on Greek Taktika held at the University of Torún, 7-11 April 2005, a cura di P. Rance and N.V. Sekunda, Gdánsk, pp. 95-116.
  88. J.V. Bromley (1973), Ètnos i ètnografija, Moskva.
  89. K.A. Brook (2006), The Jews of Khazaria, Rowman & Littlefield, Plymouth.
  90. M.C. Brose (2017), Qipchak Networks of Power in Mongol China, in How Mongolia Matters: War, Law, and Society, a cura di M. Rossabi, Leiden-Boston, pp. 69-86.
  91. M.F. Brosset (1849), Histoire de la Géorgie: depuis l'antiquité jusqu'au XIXe siècle, première partie, St. Petersburg.
  92. T.S. Bruns (1973), The battle of Adrianople: a reconsideration, "Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte" 2, pp. 336-345.
  93. I.U. Brudovnic (1969), Obščestvenno-političeskaja mysl' Drevnej Rusi XI-XIV vv, Moskva.
  94. Z. Bukowski (1960), Several Problems Concerning Contacts of Lusatian Culture with Scythians "Archaeologia Polski", III, Warsaw, pp. 65-88.
  95. Z. Bukowski (1969), Studies on the South and South-Eastern Borderline of the Lusatian Culture, Wroclaw.
  96. Z.M. Bunijatov (1978), Gosudarstvo atabekov Azerbaidžana (1136-1225 godu), Baku.
  97. G. Burger (1988), A Lytell Cronycle, Toronto.
  98. D. Burgerskijk (2016), Creating the enemy: Ammianus marcellinus’ double digression on Huns and Alans (Res Gestae 31.2), "Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies" 59.1, pp. 111-132.
  99. D. Caccamo (1993), Introduzione alla storia dell’Europa orientale, Firenze.
  100. C. Cahen (1934), La Campagne de Mantzikert d'apres les sources musulmanes, in "Byzantion" 9, pp. 613-642.
  101. C. Cahen (1948), La prèmiere pénétration turque en Asie- Mineure (seconde moitie du XI' siecle), "Byzantion" 18, pp. 5- 67.
  102. C. Cahen (1948-52), Les tribus turques d’Asie occidentale pendant le période seljukide, "Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde des Morgenlandes" 51, pp. 178–87.
  103. C. Cahen (1949), Le Malik-Nameh et l'histoire des origines seljukides, "Oriens" 2.1, pp. 31-65.
  104. C. Cahen (1968), Pre-Ottoman Turkey: a general survey of the material and spiritual culture and history, c. 1071-1330, New York.
  105. C. Cahen (1988), La Turquie pre-Ottomane, Istanbul.
  106. C. Cahen (2001), The Formation of Turkey. The Seljukide Sultanate of Rūm: Eleventh to Fourteenth Century, Harlow.
  107. A. Callander Murray (2002), Reinhard Wenskus on ‘Ethnogenesis’, Ethnicity, and the Origin of the Franks, in On Barbarian Identity: Critical Approaches to Ethnicity in the Early Middle Ages, ed. A. Gillet, Turnhout, pp. 36-68.
  108. A. Carile (1972), Sulla pronoia nel Peloponneso bizantino anteriormente alla conquista latina, "Studi Urbinati", n.s. 2, pp. 327-335.
  109. Master Roger (2010), Anonymus and Master Roger: Anonymi Bele Regis Notarii Gesta Hungarorum, a cura di Rady, Martyn C., Lázló Veszpremi, e János M. Bak, Budapest: Central European University.
  110. L.L. Cavalli Sforza (1994), The history and geography of human genes, Princeton (NJ).
  111. F. Chabod (1962), L’idea di nazione, a cura di A. Saitta e E. Sestan, Roma-Bari.
  112. G. Chaliand (2017), Nomadic Empires: From Mongolia to the Danube, New York.
  113. M. Chamberlain (1998), The crusader era and the Ayyūbid dynasty, in The Cambridge History of Egypt, vol. I, a cura di M.W. Daly, Cambridge, V, pp. 211-241.
  114. S. Chen (2012), Multicultural China in the Early Middle Ages, Philadelphia (PA).
  115. J.C. Cheynet (1980), Manzikert – un désastre militaire?, "Byzantion" 50, pp. 410–438.
  116. J.C. Cheynet (2019), Byzance et le Vaspurakan au xe siècle in The Church of the Holy Cross of Ałt ‘amar. Politics, Art, Spirituality in the Kingdom of Vaspurakan, a cura di Z. Pogossian-E. Vardanyan, Leiden-Boston, pp. 49-66.
  117. H. Cho-yun (2012), China. A Cultural History, New York.
  118. A. Brundage (1961) (a cura di), The Chronicle of Henry of Livonia, a cura di James A. Brundage, Madison (WI): Madison University Press.
  119. P. Bugiani (2005) (a cura di), Chronicon Livoniae: la crociata del nord (1184-1227), a cura di Piero Bugiani, Livorno: Books and Company.
  120. Cicerone (1975), Pro Sextus Roscio Amerino, 75, a cura di Giovanni Bellardi, Torino: Utet.
  121. P. Claessen (1970), La politica di Manuele Comneno tra Federico Barbarossa e le città italiane, Atti del XXXIII Congresso Storico Subalpino, Alessandria, 6-9 ottobre 1968, Alessandria, pp. 261-79.
  122. M.E. Clarke (2011), Xinjiang and China's Rise in Central Asia - A History, London-New York.
  123. G. Clauson (1972), An Etymological Dictionary of Pre-Thirteenth Century, Oxford.
  124. J.M. Coles-A.F. Harding (1979), The Bronze Age in Europe, London.
  125. N. Coniate (2017), Grandezza e catastrofe di Bisanzio. Vol. I (Libri 1-8), a cura di Pontani, Anna, Aleksandr P. Kazhdan, e Riccardo Maisano, Milano: Mondadori.
  126. N. Coniate (1999), Grandezza e catastrofe di Bisanzio. Vol. II (Libri 9-14), a cura di Meschini Pontani, Anna, Jean Louis van Dieten, Milano: Mondadori.
  127. N. Coniate (2014), Grandezza e catastrofe di Bisanzio. Vol. III (Libri 15-19 - De Statuis), a cura di Pontani, Anna, Jean Louis Van Dieten, Filippomaria Pontani, Milano: Mondadori.
  128. B. Croke (1977), Evidence for the Hun invasion of Thrace in AD 422, "Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies" 18.4, pp. 347-367.
  129. J.G. Crow (2017), Fortifications, in The Archaeology of Byzantine Anatolia: From the End of Late Antiquity until the Coming of the Turks, a cura di P. Niewohner, Oxford, pp. 90-108.
  130. B. Cunliffe (2015), By Steppe, Desert, and Ocean: The Birth of Eurasia, Oxford, Oxford University Press.
  131. F. Curta (2001), The Making of the Slavs. History and Archaeology of the Lower Danube Region, c.500–700, Cambridge.
  132. F. Curta (2006), Southeastern Europe in the Middle Ages, 500-1250, Cambridge.
  133. F. Curta (2013), The Image and Archaeology of the Pechenegs, "Banatica" 23, pp. 143-202.
  134. F. Curta (2019), Eastern Europe in the Middle Ages (500-1300), 2 voll., Leiden-Boston.
  135. K. Czegledy (1983), From East to West: The Age of Nomadic Migrations in Eurasia, (trans. by P.B. Golden), "Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi" 3, pp. 25-126.
  136. C. D'Ohsson (1834), Histoire des Mongols depuis Tchinguiz-qan jusqu'a Timour Bey ou Tamerlane 4 voll., Amsterdam-Le Haye: Van Cleef.
  137. F. Daftary (1992), The Isma'ilis: Their History and Doctrines, Cambridge.
  138. F. Daftary (2001) (a cura di), Mediaeval Isma'ili History and Thought. Cambridge.
  139. F. Daim (1998), Archaeology, ethnicity and the structures of identification: The example of the Avars, Carantanians and Moravians in the eighth century, Leiden-Boston.
  140. F. Dall’Aglio (2008/2009), The Military Alliance between the Cumans and Bulgaria from the Establishment of the Second Bulgarian Kingdom to the Mongol Invasion, "Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi", 16, pp. 29-54.
  141. F. Dall’Aglio (2013), “The Interaction between Nomadic and Sedentary Peoples on the Lower Danube: the Cumans and the ‘Second Bulgarian Empire’.”In The Steppe Lands and the World Beyond Them. Studies in Honor of Victor Spinei on His 70th Birthday, a cura di Florin Curta and Bogdan-Petru Maleon, pp. 299-312.
  142. F. Dall’Aglio (2019), ‟Rex or Imperator? Kalojan’s royal title in the correspondence with Innocent III.” Studia Ceranea: Journal of the Waldemar Ceran Research Centre for the History and Culture of the Mediterranean Area and South-East Europe 9, pp. 171-185.
  143. F. Dall'Aglio (2003), Innocenzo III e i Balcani: fede e politica nei Regesta pontifici [Innocent III and the Balkans: Faith and Politics in the Vatican Registers], Collana del Dipartimento di Studi dell’Europa Orientale. Napoli: Università degli Studi di Napoli "L’Orientale".
  144. R. Dankoff (1975), Kāšġarī on the Beliefs and Superstitions of the Turks, "Journal of the American Oriental Society" 95/1, pp. 68-80.
  145. R. Daskalov (2015), “Feud over the Middle Ages: Bulgarian-Romanian Historiographical Debates.” In Entangled Histories of the Balkans. Volume Three: Shared Pasts, Disputed Legacies. Ed. Roumen Daskalovj and Aleksander Vezenkov, pp. 274-354, Leiden.
  146. E.A. Davidovich (1998), Coinage and the Monetary System, in History of Civilisations of Central Asia, IV: The Age of Achievement: AD 750 to the end of the fifteenth century. Part One: The Historical, social and economic setting, a cura di M.S. Asimov- C.E. Bosworth, Paris , IV/1, pp. 392–93.
  147. E.A. Davidovich-A.H. Dani (1998), The Kharakanids, in History of Civilisations of Central Asia, IV: The Age of Achievement: AD 750 to the end of the fifteenth century. Part One: The Historical, social and economic setting, a cura di M.S. Asimov- C.E. Bosworth, Paris , IV/1, pp. 125-49, pp. 125-6.
  148. G. Moravcsik (1967) (a cura di), Constantine Prophyrogenitus de administrando imperio, a cura di Moravcsik, Gyla, e Romily J.H. Jenkins, Washington (DC): Dumbarton Oaks Research Library & Collection.
  149. F.C. De Blois (2002), Zindīḳ, in Encyclopedia of Islam, a cura di Peri Bearman, Thierry Bianquis, Clifford Edmund Bosworth, E. van Donzel, Wolfhart P. Heinrichs, 11 voll., vol. XI, Leiden 1954-1986, p. 510.
  150. I. De Rachewiltz (1973), Some Remarks on the Ideological Foundations of Chingis Khan's Empire, "Papers on Far Eastern History", 7, pp. 21-26.
  151. I. De Rachewiltz (1996), Priester John and Europe’s discovery of Eastern Asia, "East Asian History" 11, pp. 59-74.
  152. D. DeWeese (1994), Islamization and Native Religion in the Golden Horde: Baba Tÿkles and Conversion to Islam in Historical and Epic Tradition, Philadelphia.
  153. N. Di Cosmo (1994), Ancient Inner Asian Nomads: Their Economic Basis and Its Significance in Chinese History, "The Journal of Asian Studies" 53-4 (1994) pp. 1092-1126.
  154. N. Di Cosmo (1999), State Formation and Periodization in Inner Asian History, "Journal of World History", 10-1 (1999), pp. 1-40.
  155. N. Di Cosmo (2001) (a cura di), Warfare in Inner Asian Hisotry, ed. N. Di Cosmo, Leiden.
  156. N. Di Cosmo (2002), Ancient China and its Enemies: The Rise of Nomadic Power in East Asian History, Cambridge.
  157. N. Di Cosmo (2014-15), Why Qara Qorum? Climate and Geography in the Early Mongol Empire, "Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi", 21, Festschrift for Thomas T. Allsen in Celebration of His 75th Birthday, a cura di P. B. Golden, R. K. Kovalev, A. P. Martinez, J. Skaff, A. Zimonyi, pp. 67-78.
  158. N.Di Cosmo, A.J.Frank, P.B. Golden (2009) Introduction, in The Cambridge History of Inner Asia. The Chinggisid Age, a cura di N. Di Cosmo, P.B. Golden, A. Frank, Cambridge, pp. 1-8.
  159. P. Diaconu (1964), K voprosu o glinjanyx kotlax na territorii RNR., "Dacia", nuova serie, 8, pp. 249-264.
  160. P. Diaconu (1978), Les Coumans au Bas-Danube aux XIe et XIIe siècle, Bucaresti.
  161. J. Diamond (2014), Armi, acciaio e malattie. Breve storia del mondo negli ultimi tredicimila anni, Torino.
  162. M, Dimnik (1994), The Dynasty of Chernigov, 1054-1146, Toronto.
  163. M, Dimnik (2003), The Dynasty of Chernigov, 1146-1246, Cambridge.
  164. M. Dimnik (2006), The Rus’ Principalities (1125-1246), in The Cambridge History of Russia, vol, I, a cura di M. Perrie, Cambridge, pp. 98-126.
  165. M. Dimnik (2016), Power Politics in Kievan Rusʹ: Vladimir Monomakh and His Dynasty, 1054-1246, Minneapolis (MN).
  166. B.A. Dorn (1875), Kaspij. O poxodax drevnix rusov v Tabaristan, "Zapiski Imp. Akademii Nauk", 26, pp. 524-530.
  167. J. Drobný (2012), Cumans and Kipchaks: Between Ethnonym and Toponym, Zborník Filozofickej Fakulty Univerzity Komenského Ročník. Graecolatina et Orientalia, XXXIII-XXXIV, Bratislava, pp. 205-217.
  168. M.R. Drommp (2005), Tang China and The Collapse of The Uighur Empire: A Documentary History, Leiden.
  169. W. Duczko (2004), Viking Rus. Studies on the Presence of Scandinavians in Eastern Europe, Leiden.
  170. D.M. Dunlop (1954), The History of the Jewish Khazars, Princeton (NJ).
  171. F. Dvornik (1956), The Slavs. Their Early History and Civlizations, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Boston.
  172. T.D. Džumanaliev (2005), Evoljuzija političeskoj vlasti kočevnikov Pritjan’šanja: (IIv. Do n.è. –XII v.), Moskva.
  173. V.L. Egorov (1994), Rusʹ i ee iužnye sosedi v X–XIII vekakh, "Otečestvennaia Istoriia", 6, pp. 184–200.
  174. T. El-Hibri (1996), Reinterpreting Islamic Historiography: Hārūn Al-Rashīd and the Narrative of the ‘Ābbāsid Caliphate, Cambridge.
  175. M. Eliade (2004), Le chamanisme et les techniques archaiques de l’extase, Paris 1951, ed. ingl. Shamanism, Princeton.
  176. Erodoto (1993), Storie. Libro IV, La Scizia e la Libia, edizione a cura di Aldo Corcella, Silvio Medaglia e Augusto Fraschetti, Milano: Mondadori.
  177. Eschine (1988), The Speeches of Aeschines, ed. Charles D. Adams, Cambridge (MS): Harvard University Press.
  178. Eustatius (1832), Eustathii Metropolitae Tessalonicensis opuscola, a cura di Gottliev L. Tafel, Frankfurt.
  179. U. Fabietti (2004), L’identità etnica. Storia e critica di un concetto equivoco, Roma.
  180. A. Farda (2012), Khazaria, Byzantium, and the Arab Caliphate: struggle for control over Eurasian trade routes in the 9th-10th centuries, "The Caucasus and Globalization" 6.4, pp. 140-149.
  181. G.A. Gedorov-Davydov (1966), Kočevniki Vostočnoj Evropy pod vlast’ju zolotoordynskich xanov, Moskva.
  182. F. Filotico (2011), Reinhard Wenskus e il concetto di etnicità nell'età delle invasioni barbariche "Nuova rivista storica" XCV-3, pp. 786-826.
  183. J.V.A. Fine (1994), The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest, Ann Arbor (MI).
  184. J.Jr. Fletcher (1979-80), Turco-Mongolian Monarchic Tradition in the Ottoman Empire, "Harvard Ukrainian Studies", 3-4/I, pp. 236-251.
  185. S. Franklin (2004), Writing Society and Culture in Early rus, c. 950-1300, Cambridge.
  186. S. Franklin (2006), Kievan Rus’ (1015-1125), in The Cambridge History of Russia, vol. I, a cura di M. Perrie, Cambridge, pp. 73-97.
  187. S. Franklin-J. Shepard (1996), The Emergence of Rus, 750-1200, London-New York.
  188. P. Frankopan (2015), Silk Roads: A New History of the World, London.
  189. P. Frankopan (2017), Le vie della seta: una nuova storia del mondo, Milano.
  190. J.Ja. Froianov (1986), Large-Scale Ownership of Land and the Russian Economy in the Tenth to Twelfth Centuries, "Soviet Studies in History" 24/4, pp. 9-82, alle pp. 24-25.
  191. R.N. Frye (1975), The Sāmānids, in The Cambridge History of IRan, Vol. 4: From the Arab Invasion to the Saljuqs, a cura di F.N. Frye, Cambridge, pp. 136–161.
  192. F. Gabrieli (1991 (a cura di), Il Medioevo arabo e islamico dell'Africa del nord: il Maghreb, a cura di F. Gabrieli, Milano.
  193. A.V. Gadlo (1988), K istorii Tmutorokanskogo kniažestva vo vtoroi polovine XI v.', Slaviano-russkie drevnosti, I, Istoriko-arkheologičeskoe izučenie Drevnei Rusi, Leningrad.
  194. M. Gallina (1995), Potere e società a Bisanzio. Dalla fondazione al 1204, Torino.
  195. J.C. Garcin (1998), The regime of the Circassian Mamlūks, in The Cambridge History of Egypt, vol. I, a cura di M.W. Daly, Cambridge cit., pp. 290-317.
  196. Gardīzī (2011), Ornament of Histories. A History of the Eastern Islamic Lands AD 650-1041: The Persian Text of Abū Sa'īd 'Abd Al-Hayy Gardīzī, ed. Clifford Edmund Bosworth New York: Tauris.
  197. M. Garzaniti (1990), Daniil Egumeno, Itinerario in Terra Santa. Roma: Città Nuova.
  198. S. Gasparri (1997), Prima delle nazioni. Popoli, etnie e regni fra antichità e medioevo, Roma.
  199. D.J. Geanakoplos (1953), Greco-Latin relations on the eve of the Byzantine restoration: The Battle of Pelagonia – 1259, "Dumbarton Oaks Papers" VII, pp. 99-141.
  200. P.J. Geary (1983), Ethnic identity as a situational construct in the early Middle Ages, "Mitteilungen der Anthropologischen Gesellschaft in Wien" 113, pp.15-26.
  201. P.J. Geary (1988), Before France and Germany: The Creation and Transformation of the Merovingian World, Oxford University Press.
  202. P.J. Geary (1999), Barbarians and Ethnicity, in Late Antiquity: A Guide to the Postclassical World, a cura di G.W. Bowersock et al., Cambridge (MS), pp. 107-129.
  203. P.J. Geary (2016), Il mito delle nazioni: le origini medievali dell’Europa, Roma.
  204. G. Akropolites (2007), The History, a cura di Ruth J. Macrides, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  205. K. Vivian, A.A.M. Bryer, S. Qaukhachishvili (1991) (a cura di), Georgian Chronicle. The Period of Giorgi Lasha, a cura di Vivian, Katharine, Anthony, A.M. Bryer, e S. Qaukhchishvili, Amsterdam: Hakkert.
  206. R.W. Thomson (1996) (a cura di), Rewriting Caucasian History. The Medieval Armenian Adaptation of the Georgian Chronicles, a cura di Robert W. Thomson, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  207. H.A. Gibb (1923), The Arab Conquest in Central Asia, London.
  208. A. Gillet (2002) (a cura di), On Barbarian Identity. Critical Approaches to Ethnicity in the Early Middle Ages, a cura di A. Gillett, Turnhout 2002.
  209. Giordane (1961), Iordanis Romana et Getica, a cura di Theodor Mommsen, Berlin: Weidman.
  210. R. Giraud (1960), L’empire des turcs célestes. Les règnes d'Elterich, Qapghan et Bilgä (680-734). Contribution à l'histoire des Turcs d'Asie Centrale, Paris 1960.
  211. T.F. Glick (2005), Islamic And Christian Spain in the Early Middle Ages, Leiden-Boston.
  212. J. Głosik (1957), Z problematyki kultury łuźyckiej na wschód od środkowej Wisły, "Archaeologiské rozhledy" IX.5, pp. 698-711.
  213. H.W. Goetz, J. Jarnut, W. Pohl (2003) (a cura di), 'Regna and Gentes'. The Relationship between Late Antique and Early Medieval Peoples and Kingdoms in the Transformation of the Roman World, with the collaboration of S. Kaschke, Brill, Leiden-Boston.
  214. P.B. Golden (1972), The Migration of the Ǒghuz, "AO" IV, pp. 45-84.
  215. P.B. Golden (1979-1980), The Polovci Dikii, "Harvard Ukrainian Studies" 3-4, pp. 296-309.
  216. P.B. Golden (1982), Imperial ideology and the sources of political unity among the pre-Činggisid nomad of Western Eurasia, "AEME" 2, pp. 37-77.
  217. P.B. Golden (1983), Khazaria and Judaism, "Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi" 3, pp.127-156.
  218. P.B. Golden (1984), Cumanica I: The Qipčaqs in Georgia, "Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi" 4, pp. 45-87.
  219. P.B. Golden (1990), The Karakhanids and Early Islam in The Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia, a cura di D. Sinor, Cambridge, pp. 343-370.
  220. P.B. Golden (1990), The peoples of the south Russian steppes, in The Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia, a cura di D. Sinor, Cambridge, pp. 256-284.
  221. P.B. Golden (1992), An introduction to the history of the Turkic peoples: Ethnogenesis and state-formation in Medieval and early modern Eurasia and the Middle East, Wiesbaden .
  222. P.B. Golen (1992), Nomads and Their Sedentary Neighbors in Pre-Cinggisid Eurasia, "Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi" 7, pp. 41-81.
  223. P.B. Golden (1995-97, Cumanica IV: The tribes of the Cuman-Qipčaqs, "Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi" 9, pp. 99-122.
  224. P.B. Golden (1996), “Černii Klobouci" in Symbolae Turcologicae - Studies in Honour of Lars Johanson, a cura di Á. Berta, B. Brendemoen, C. Schönig, Transactions of the Swedish Research Institute in Istanbul, vol.6 (Uppasala, pp. 97-107.
  225. P.B. Golden (1996), Wolves, Dogs and Qipčaq Religion, "Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae", L, 1997, pp. 87-97.
  226. P.B. Golden (1998), Religion among the Qïpčaqs of Medieval Eurasia, "Central Asiatic Journal" 42.2, pp. 180-237.
  227. P.B. Golden (2001), War and Warfare in the Pre-Činggisid Western Steppes, in Warfare in Inner Asian History (500-1800), ed. N. Di Cosmo, Leiden, pp. 105-160.
  228. P.B. Golden (2001), Ethnicity and State Formation in Pre-Činggisid Turkic Eurasia, Bloomington (IN).
  229. P.B. Golden (2003), Aspects of the Nomadic Factor in the Economic Development of Kievan Rus’, in Nomads, in Nomads and their Neighbors in the Russian Steppe, Aldershot, VIII, pp. 58-101.
  230. P.B. Golden (2003), Nomads and their Neighbours in the Russian Steppe: Turks, Khazars and Qipchaqs, Aldershot.
  231. P.B. Golden (2005), The Shaping of the Cuman.Qïchaqs and their World, in Il Codice Cumanico e il suo mondo. Atti del Colloquio internazionale, Venezia, 6-7 dicembre 2002 a cura di F. Schmieder e P. Schreiner, Roma, pp. 247-277.
  232. P.B. Golden (2006-07)Cumanica V: The Basmils and Qipčaqs, "Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi" 15, pp. 13–42.
  233. P.B. Golden (2007), Irano-Turcica: The Khazar Sacral Kingship Revisited, "Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae" 60, pp. 161-194.
  234. P.B. Golden (2007), Khazar Studies, Achievements and Perspectives, in The World of the Khazars: New Perspectives. Selected Papers from the Jerusalem 1999 International Khazar Colloquium, a cura di P.B. Golden, H. Ben-Shammai, and A. Róna-Tas, Brill, Leiden-Boston, pp. 7-58.
  235. P.B. Golden (2007), The Conversion of the Khazars to Judaism, in The World of the Khazars: New Perspectives. Selected Papers from the Jerusalem 1999 International Khazar Colloquium, a cura di P.B. Golden, H. Ben-Shammai, and A. Róna-Tas, Brill, Leiden-Boston, pp. 123-160.
  236. P.B. Golden (2008-09), Ethnogenesis in the tribal zone: The Shaping of the Turks, "Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi" 16, pp. 73-112.
  237. P.B. Golden (2009), Inner Asia c.1200 in The Cambridge History of Inner Asia. The Chinggisid Age, a cura di N. Di Cosmo, P.B. Golden, A. Frank, Cambridge, pp. 9-25.
  238. P.B. Golden (2010), Central Asia in World History, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  239. P.B. Golden (2014), Qıpčaq, in Turcology and Linguistics Éva Ágnes Csató Festschrift, a cura di N. Demir, B. Karakoč, A. Menz, Hacettepe, pp. 183-202.
  240. P.B. Golden (2015), The Stateless Nomads of Early Medieval Central Eurasia, "Materialy po archeologii, istorii I étnografii Travrii" 20, pp. 333-368.
  241. P.B. Golden (2016), Oq and Oğur-Oğuz, in Turkish Language, Literature, and History: Travelers' Tales, Sultans, and Scholars Since the Eighth Century, a cura di B. Hickman and G. Leiser, Routledge, Oxford .
  242. P.B. Golden (2018), The Stateless Nomads of Central Eurasia, in Empires and Exchanges in Eurasian Late Antiquity. Rome, China, Iran, and the Steppe, ca. 250–750, ed. N. Di Cosmo, M. Maas, Cambridge, pp. 317-332.
  243. K. Golev (2018), On the Edge of “Another World”: The Balkans and Crimea as Contact Zones Between the Cuman-Qïpchaqs and the Outside World, "Études Balkaniques" 54, pp. 89-126.
  244. K. Golev (2018), The Cuman-Qïpchaqs And Crimea: The Role of the Peninsula in the Nomads’ Relations with the Outside World, "Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi" 24, pp. 23-108.
  245. K. Golev (2018), The Bulgarophilia of the Cumans in the times of the First Asenids of Bulgaria, "The Golden Horde Review" 6.3, pp. 452-471.
  246. P. Golubovskij (1884), Pečenegi, torki i polovcy do našestvija tatar, Kiev.
  247. V.A. Gordlevskij (1947), Čto takoe bosyj volk? (K tolkovaiju Slova o polku Igoreve“), "Izdatelstvo Akademii Nauk SSSR" VI.4, pp. 317-337.
  248. T.E. Gregory (2010), A History of Byzantium, Blackwell, Malden (MA)-Oxford.
  249. B.D. Grekov (1944), Kievskaja Rus’, Moskva-Leningrad.
  250. B.D. Grekov-A.Ju. Jakubovskij (1950), Zolotaya Orda I ee padenie, Moskva.
  251. D. Gress-Wright (1977), Bogomilism in Constantinople, "Byzantion" 47, pp. 163-185.
  252. V.V. Grigor’ev (1875), Ob otnošenijax meždu kočevymi narodami i osedlymi gosudarstvami, "Žurnal Moskva Narodnogo Prosveščenija" 19.2, pp. 1-27.
  253. R. Grousset (1969), L'empire des steppes: Attila, Gengis-Khan, Tamerlan, Paris.
  254. R. Grousset (1984), Historire de l’Arménie des origines à 1071, Paris.
  255. Ju. K. Guguev (2012), Poloveckoe svjatilišče na Seversko Donce (problema rekonstrukcii pervonačalnogo vida kul’tovogo kompleksa), in Stepi Evropy v wpochu srednevekov’ja, t. X, Doneck, pp. 65-84.
  256. S. Gullbekk (2014), Vestfold: A Monetary Perspective on the Viking Age in Early Medieval Monetary System, Studies in Memory of Mark Blackburn, a cura di R. Naismith, M. Allen and E. Screen, Aldershot, pp. 331-348.
  257. L.N. Gumilëv (1960), Chunnu, Sredinnaja Azija v drevnie vremena, Moskva.
  258. L.N. Gumilëv (1980), Gli Unni. Un impero di nomadi antagonista dell'antica Cina, Torino 1980.
  259. L.N. Gumilëv (1989), Drevnaja Rus’ i velikaja step’, Moskva.
  260. L.N. Gumilëv (2014), Gli Unni. Un impero di nomadi antagonista dell'antica Cina, Milano.
  261. O. Hagender et al. (2018), Die Register Innocenz’ III. Voll. 1-14. Wien, 1964-2018.
  262. W. Hahn, M.A. Metlich (2000) (a cura di), Money of the Incipient Byzantine Empire: (Anastastius I - Justinian I, 491-565), a cura di W.Hahn e M.A. Metlich, Wien.
  263. J.F. Haldon (1999), Warfare, State and Society in the Byzantine World, 565-1204, London.
  264. J.F. Haldon (2005), Economy and Administration, in The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Justinian, a cura di M. Maas, Cambridge, pp. 28-59.
  265. C.J. Halperin (1985), Russia and the Golden Horde: The Mongol impact on medieval Russian history, Bloomington (ID).
  266. C.J. Halperin (2000), The Kipchak Connection: The Ilkhans, the Mamluks and Ayn Jalut, "Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London" 63.2, pp. 229-245.
  267. W.K. Hanak (2013), The Nature and the Image of Princely Power in Kievan Rus’, 980-1054, Leiden-Boston.
  268. B. Hårdh (2007), Oriental-Scandinavian contacts on the Volga, as manifested by silver rings and weight systems in Silver Economy in the Viking Age, ed. J. Graham-Campbell and G. Williams, Walnut Creek (CA), pp. 135-148.
  269. D. Hardi (2016), Cumans and Mongols in the region of Srem in 1241-1242: A discussion on the extend of devastation, "Istražen’a" 27, pp. 84-105.
  270. A. Harvey (1989), Economic Expansion in the Byzantine Empire, 900-1200, Cambridge.
  271. G.R. Hawting (2002), The First Dynasty of Islam: The Umayyad Caliphate AD 661-750, Oxford.
  272. Hayton (2010), La Storia dei Tartari di Hayton Armeno, in Giovan Battista Ramusio, Navigazioni e Viaggi, vol. III, 299-355, a cura di Marica Milanesi, Torino: Einaudi
  273. P. Heather (1995), The Huns and the End of the Roman Empire in Western Europe, "The English Historical Review" 110/435, pp. 4-41.
  274. P. Heather (2018), Goths, in The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity, a cura di O. Nicholson, Oxford, p. 673.
  275. L.L. Heinrich (1977), The Kievan Chronicle, ed. and trans. by L.L. Heinrich, Ph.D. Dissertation, Vanderbilt University.
  276. M.F. Hendy (1970), Byzantium, 1081-1204: An Economic Reappraisal, in Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 5th series, 20, pp. 31-52.
  277. M.F. Hendy (1985), Studies in the Byzantine Monetary Economy c. 300-1450, Cambridge.
  278. M.F. Hendy (1989), Byzantium, 1081-1204: the economy revisited twenty years on”, in Michael Hendy, The Economy, Fiscal Administration and Coinage of Byzantium, London, pp. 1-48.
  279. E. Herman (1940), Ricerche sulle istituzioni monastiche bizantine, "Orientalia Christiana" VI, pp. 293-375.
  280. Héthoum (1989), Héthoum II d'Arménie, in "Recueil des Historiens des Croisades" Documents arméniens, tomo I, 469-490, Paris: Imprimerie Nationale.
  281. G. di Pian Del Carpine (1989), Storia dei Mongoli, a cura di P. Daffinà, E. Menestò, M.C. Lungarotti, C. Leonardi, L. Petech, Spoleto: CISAM.
  282. W. Honeychurch (2013), The Nomad as State Builder: Historical Theory and material Evidence from Mongolia, "Journal of World Prehistory" 26-4, pp. 283-321.
  283. J. Howard-Johnston (2007), Byzantine Sources for Khazar History, in The World of the Khazars: New Perspectives. Selected Papers from the Jerusalem 1999 International Khazar Colloquium, a cura di P.B. Golden, H. Ben-Shammai, and A. Róna-Tas, Brill, Leiden-Boston, pp. 163-194.
  284. H.H. Howorth (1989), The Avars, "Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society" 21.4, pp. 721-810.
  285. V. Minorsky (1970), The regions of the world: a Persian geography, 372 A.H. - 982 A.D, a cura di Minorsky, Vladimir, London: Gibb Memorial.
  286. R.S. Humphreys (1977), From Saladin to the Mongols: The Ayyubids of Damascus, 1193-1260, Albany (NY).
  287. R.S. Humphreys (1977), The Emergence of the Mamluk Army, "Studia Islamica" 45, pp. 67-99.
  288. J.M. Hussey (2020), The Orthodox Church in the Byzantine Empire, Oxford.
  289. Ibn al-Athir (2008), The Chronicle of Ibn al-Athir for the Crusading Period from al-Kamil fi’l-Ta’rikh, 3 parts, a cura di Donald S. Richards, Aldershot: Ashgate.
  290. Ibn Battuta (1962), The Travels of Ibn Battuta A.D. 1325-1354, a cura di Hamilton A.R. Gibb, 2 voll., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  291. Ibn Bībī (1959), Die Seltschukengeschichte des Ibn Bībī, a cura di Herbert W. Duda, Kopenhagen: Munksgaard.
  292. Ibn Khaldûn (1958), The Muqaddimah: an introduction to history, a cura di Rosenthal Franz, e N.J. Dawood, 3 voll., Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  293. Ibn Khordadbeḥ (1865), Le livre des routes et des provinces d’Ibn Khordadbeḥ, a cura di Casimir Barbier de Meynard, Paris: Imprimerie Impériale.
  294. Ibn Khordādhbeh (1992), Le Livre des routes et des royaumes (Kitab al-masalik wa l-mamalik), a cura di M.J. de Goeje, Leyde, Frankfurt am Main: Goethe University.
  295. Ibn Rusta (1869), Izvestija o xhozarach’, burtasach’, bolgarach’, mad’ja-rach’, slavjanach i russach’, ed. D.A. Khvolson, Sankt Petersburg.
  296. H. Bresc (1999) (a cura di), La première géographie de l’Occident, a cura di Bresc, Henri, e Annliese Nef, Paris: Flammarion.
  297. E.T. Saronne (1998) (a cura di), Il Cantare di Igor’, a cura di Edgardo T. Saronne, Parma: Pratiche.
  298. I. Zonara (1897), Epitomae Historiarum, vol. III, a cura di Theodor Büttner-Wobst, Bonn: Weber.
  299. W. Irons (2003), Cultural capital, livestock raiding, and the military advantage of traditional pastoralists in Nomadic Pathways in Social Evolution, a cura di N.N. Kradin, D.M. Bondarenko, T.J. Barfield, Moskva, pp. 63-72.
  300. R. Irwin (1986), The Middle East in the Middle Ages: The Early Mamlūk Sultanate 1150-1382, Carbondale and Edwardsville.
  301. W. Ouseley (1800), The Oriental Geography of Ebn Haukal, An Arabian Traveller of the Tenth Century, a cura di William Ouseley, London: Wilson & Co.
  302. D. Jacoby (1994), Italian privileges and trade in Byzantium before the Fourth Crusade: A reconsideration, "Anuario de Estudios Medievales" 24, pp. 349-369.
  303. A.Ju. Jakubovskij (1927), Rasskaz Ibn-al-Bibi o pochode maloaziiskich Turok na Sudak, Polovcev i Russkich v načale XIII v., "Vizantijskij Vremennik" 25, pp. 53-76.
  304. S.A. Janina (1962), Nekotorye numizmatičeskie dannye po istorii Volžskoj Bolgar, "Materialy i issledovanija po archeologgi SSSR" 111, pp. 205-216.
  305. S.A. Janina (1962), Novye dannye o monetom čekane Volžskoj Bolgarii X veka, "Materialy i issledovanija po archeologgi SSSR" 111, pp. 179- 204.
  306. K. Jażdżewski (1948), O zagadnieniu początków kultry łuźyckiej, "Slavia Antiqua" I, pp. 94-152.
  307. H. Jin Kim (2013), The Huns, Rome and the Birth of Europe, Cambridge-New-York.
  308. R.P. Smith (1860) (a cura di), The Third Part of the Ecclesiastical History of John Bishop of Ephesus, trans. Robert Payne Smith, Oxford: University Press.
  309. E.W. Brooks (1964) (a cura di), Historiae Ecclesiasticae pars tertia, a cura di Ernest W. Brooks, Louvain: CSCO.
  310. J.H. Johnston (2007), Byzantine sources for Khazar history, in The World of the Khazars: New Perspectives. Selected Papers from the Jerusalem 1999 International Khazar Colloquium, a cura di P.B. Golden, H. Ben-Shammai, and A. Róna-Tas, Brill, Leiden-Boston.
  311. T. Johnes (1807) (a cura di), Memoirs of John Lord de Joinville, a cura di Thomas Johnes, vol. II, London: Henderson.
  312. J.A. Boyle (1958) (a cura di), The History of the World Conqueror, trans. John A. Boyle Manchester: University Press.
  313. T.M. Kalinina (2007), Al-Khazar and As-Sa Qâliba: Contacts. Conflicts? In The World of the Khazars: New Perspectives. Selected Papers from the Jerusalem 1999 International Khazar Colloquium, a cura di P.B. Golden, H. Ben-Shammai, and A. Róna-Tas, Brill, Leiden-Boston, pp. 195-206.
  314. G.L. Lewis (1957) (a cura di), The Balance of Truth, ed. Geoffrey L. Lewis, London: Allen and Unwin.
  315. K. Kato (1992), Cultural exchange on the ancient Steppe route: Some observations on Pazyryk heritage, in Significance of silk roads in the history of human civilizations, a cura di T. Umesao and T. Sugimura, Osaka, pp 5–20.
  316. A.P. Kazhdan (1988-89), Rus'-Byzantine princely marriages in the eleventh and twelfth centuries, "Harvard Ukrainian Studies" 12/13, pp. 414-429.
  317. H. Kennedy (2015), The Prophet and the Age of the Caliphates: The Islamic Near East from the Sixth to the Eleventh Century, London-New York.
  318. H. Kennedy (2016), The Early Abbasid Caliphate: A Political History, Routledge, Oxford.
  319. A.M. Khazanov (1978), Characteristic features of nomadic communities in the Eurasian steppes in The Nomadic alternative: modes and models of interaction in the African-Asian deserts and steppes, ed. W. Weissleder, The Hague, pp. 119-126.
  320. A.M. Khazanov (1990), World Religions in the Eurasian Steppes: Some Regularities of Dissemination, in Altaic Religious Beliefs and Practices. Proceedings of the 33rd meeting of the Permanent International Altaistic Conference, Budapest June 24–29, pp. 197-201.
  321. A.M. Khazanov (1993), Mohammad and Jenghiz Khan Compared: The Religious Factor in World Empire Building, "Comparative Studies in Society and History", 35.3, pp. 461-479.
  322. A.M. Khazanov (1994), Nomads and the Outside World, University of Wisconsin Press.
  323. A.M. Khazanov (1994), The Spread of World Religions in Medieval Nomadic Societies of the Eurasian Steppes, in Nomadic Diplomacy, Destruction and Religion from the Pacific to the Adriatic, a cura di M. Gervers and W. Schlepp, Toronto Studies in Central and Inner Asia, 1, Toronto, pp. 11-33.
  324. A.M. Khazanov (2003), Nomads of the Eurasian Steppes in Historical Retrospective, in Nomadic Pathways in Social Evolution, a cura di N.N. Kradin, D.M. Bondarenko, T.J. Barfield, Moskva, pp. 25-49.
  325. A.M. Khazanov (2019), Steppe Nomads in the Euraisan Trade "Chungara Revista de Antropología Chilena" 51, pp. 85-93.
  326. H.J. Kim (2015), The Huns, Oxford.
  327. M. Brand (1976) (a cura di), Deeds of John and Manuel Comnenus, trans. Charles M. Brand, New York: Columbia University Press.
  328. E.L. Konjavskaja (2015), Polovcy I rannnich letopisjach: ocenki i interpretacii letopisiev, "Slověne" 1, pp. 180-190.
  329. A.G. Kossova (2005) (a cura di), Cronaca dei Tempi Passati. XI-XII secolo, a cura di Alda G. Kossova, Cinisello Balsamo.
  330. D. Kouymjian (1969), Mxit'ar of Ani on the Rise of the Seljuqs, "Revue des études arméniennes" 6, pp. 331-53.
  331. S. Kovácz (2009), Dynastic Relations between Cumans and Neighbouring States, in Proceedings of the Ninth Conference of the European Society of Central Asian Studies, a cura di T. Gacek, J. Pstrusińska, Cambridge, pp. 200-210.
  332. S. Kovácz (2014), The Cuman Campaigns of 1091, "Zolootordinskoe Obozrenie [Golden Horde Review]" 13, pp. 174-189.
  333. R.K. Kovalev (2001), Mint Output in Tenth-Century Bukhără: a Case Study of Dirham Production and Monetary Circulation in Northern Europe, "Russian History" 28-1/4, pp. 245-271.
  334. R.K. Kovalev (2002), Dirham mint output of Samanid Samarqand and its connection to the beginnings of trade with northern Europe (10th century), "Histoire et Meisure" 17-3/4, pp. 197-216.
  335. L. Krader (1963), Social Organization of the Mongol-Turkic Pastoral Nomads, The Hague.
  336. N.N. Kradin (1992), Kočevye obščestva. Problemy fromacionnoj charakteristiki, Vladivostok.
  337. N.N. Kradin (2000), Kočevniki, mir-imperii i social’naja evoljucija, in Alternaternativnye puti k civilizacii, a cura di N.N. Kradin, A.V. Korotaev, D.M. Bondarenko, D.M. Lynša, Moskva, pp. 314-336.
  338. N.N. Kradin (2002), Nomadism, Evolution and World-Systems: Pastoral Societies in Theories of Historical Development, "Journal of World-Systems Research" 7-3, pp. 368-388.
  339. N.N. Kradin (2005), From Tribal Confederation to Emopire: The Evolution of the Rouran Society, "Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 58-2, Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Mediaeval History of the Eurasian Steppe: Szeged, Hungary May 11—16, 2004: Part II, pp. 149-169.
  340. N.N. Kradin (2007), Kočevniki Evrazii, Almaty.
  341. N.N. Kradin (2019), Social Complexity, Inner Asia, and Pastoral Nomadism, in "Social evolution and History" 18, pp. 3-34.
  342. N.N. Kradin (2000), Nomadic Empires in Evolutionary Perspective, in Alternatives of Social Evolution, a cura di N.N. Kradin, A.V. Korotayev, D.M. Bondarenko, V. De Munck, and P.K. Wason, Vladivostok, pp. 274-288.
  343. J.L. Kraemer (1992), Humanism in the Renaissance of Islam: The Cultural Revival During the Buyid Age, Leiden-New York (NY)-Köln.
  344. K.V. Kudrjašov (1947), O mestopoloženii poloveckix vež v severnom Pričernomor’e v XIII, "Trudy In-ta étnogr.", Novaja ser.,1.
  345. B.E. Kumekov (1971), Gosudarstvo kimakov IX-XI vv. po arabskim istočnikam, Alma Ata.
  346. G. La Strange (2011), Lands of the Eastern Caliphate, Cambridge.
  347. A.E. Laiou, C. Bouras (2002) (a cura di), The Economic History of Byzantium. From the Seventh Through the Fifteenth Century, Washington (DC).
  348. A.K.S. Lambton (1972), Aspects of Saljuq-Ghuzz settlement in Persia, in Islamic Civilisation, 950-1150, a cura di D.S. Richards, Oxford, pp. 105-126.
  349. A.K.S. Lambton (2013), State and Government in Medieval Islam, Oxford.
  350. I.M. Lapidus (1975), The separation of state and religion in the development of early Islamic society, "International Journal of Middle East Studies", VI, pp.363-85.
  351. I. Lapidus (2000) (a cura di), A History of Islamic Societies, Cambridge.
  352. I.M. Lapidus (2014), A History of Islamic Societies, Cambridge-New York.
  353. G. Larson et al. (2014), Current perspectives and the future of domestication studies, "PNAS" 111, pp. 6139–6146.
  354. J. Lassner (2017), The shaping of'Abbasid rule, Princeton.
  355. J. Laurent (1929), Byzance et Antioche sous le curopalate Philarète, "Revue des Études Arméniennes" 9, pp. 61-72.
  356. A.D. Lee (2005), The Empire at War, in The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Justinian, a cura di M. Maas, Cambridge, pp. 113-133.
  357. P. Lemerle (1967), Un aspect du rôle des monastères à Byzance: Les monastères donnés à des laïcs, le charisticaires, "Compte rendu des séances de l’Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres" 111-1, pp. 9-28.
  358. Y. Lēv (1997), War and Society in the Eastern Mediterranean: 7th - 15th Centuries, Leiden-Boston, Brill.
  359. A. Levanoni (1995), Consolidation of Aybak’s Rule: An Example of Factionalism in the Mamlūk State, "Der Islam" 71, pp. 246-247.
  360. B. Lewis (1970), Egypt and Syria, in The Cambridge History of Islam, vol. 1A: The Central Islamic Lands from Pre-Islamic Times to the First World War, a cura di by P.M. Holt, A.K.S. Lambton, B. Lewis, Cambridge, pp. 175-230.
  361. D.S. Lichačev (1980), Pamjatniki literatury drevnej Rusi, XII vek, ed. D.S. Lichačev, Moskva.
  362. J. H. Lind (1984), The Russo-Byzantine Treaties and the Early Urban Structure of Rus', "The Slavonic and East European Review", 62.3, pp. 362-370.
  363. J. Becker (1915) (a cura di), Die Werke Liudprands von Cremona, ed. Joseph Becker in Scriptores Rerum Germanicarum, vol. 41, Hannover-Leipzig: Holmsche Buchhandlung.
  364. V.G. Ljaskoronskij (1907), Russkie poxody v stepi v udelìno-večevoe vremja, Sankt Peterburg.
  365. B. Maçães (2018), The dawn of Eurasia: On the Trail of the New World Order, London.
  366. C.A. MacArtney (1968), The Magyars in the Ninth Century, Cambridge.
  367. C. Mackerras (1990), The Uighurs, in The Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia, a cura di D. Sinor, Cambridge, pp. 317-342.
  368. T.F. Madden (2016), The Fourth Crusade: Event, Aftermath, and Perceptions: Papers from the Sixth Conference of the Society for the Study of the Crusades and the Latin East, Istanbul, Turkey, 25-29 August 2004, a cura di T.F. Madden, New York.
  369. W. Madelung-F. Daftary (2001) (a cura di), Mediaeval Isma'ili History and Thought, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (MS) 2001.
  370. A. Madgearu (2013), Byzantine Military Organization on the Danube, 10th-12th Centuries, Leiden-Boston.
  371. A. Madgearu (2017), The Asanids: The Political and Military History of the Second Bulgarian Empire, 1185–1280, Leiden-Boston-New York.
  372. O. Maenchen-Helfen (1973), The World of the Huns: Studies in Their History and Culture, Berkeley (CA).
  373. O. Maenchen-Helfen (1978), Die Welt der Hunnen: eine Analyse ihrer historischen Dimension, Wien.
  374. P. Magdalino (2002), The Empire of Manuel I Komnenus, 1143-1180, Cambridge.
  375. M.G. Magomedov (1983), Obrazovanie khazarskogo kaganata, Moskva.
  376. A. Maiorov (2015), The Alliance between Byzantium and Rus’ before the Conquest of Constantinople by the Crusaders in 1204, "Russian History" 42/3 (2015), pp. 272-303.
  377. A. Maiorov (2018), Byzantium, Rus and Cumans in the early 13th century, "Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae" 71, pp. 7-27.
  378. M. Makki (1992), The Political History of Al Andalus (92/711-897/1492), in The Legacy of Muslim Spain, a cura di S.K. Jayyusi e M. Marin, Leiden-New York-Köln, pp. 3-87.
  379. G. Mako (2010), The Possible Reasons for the Arab–Khazar Wars, "Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi" 17, pp. 47-57.
  380. G. Mako (2011), Two Examples of Nomadic Conversion in Eastern Europe: the Christianization of the Pechenegs, and the Islamization of the Volga Bulghars (tenth to thirteenth century AD), MA Thesis, Cambridge University Press.
  381. P. Malingoudis (1978), Die Nachrichten des Nicetas Choniates über die Entstehung des Zweiten Bulgarischen Staates, "Byzantina" 10, pp. 53-148.
  382. G. Mandel (1992), Storia dell’Harem, Milano.
  383. Ammianus Marcellinus (1978), Rerum Gestarum Libri quae supersunt. 2 voll., a cura di Seyfahrt, Wolfgang, Liselotte Jaco-Karau, e Ilse Ulmann, Leipzig: Teubner 1978.
  384. M. Marin (2001), Storia della "Spagna musulmana" e dei suoi abitanti, Milano.
  385. J. Marquart (1914), Über das volkstum der Komanen, in Osttürkische Dialektstudien, a cura di W. Bang, J. Marquart, Berlin.
  386. J. Martin (1986), Treasure from the Land of Darkness. The Fur Trade and its Significance for Medieval Russia, Cambridge.
  387. J. Martin (2007), Medieval Russia. 980-1584, Cambridge.
  388. A.P. Martinez (1982), Gardīzī’s two chapters on the Turks, "Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi" II: 109-217.
  389. Mas’ūdī (1962-91), Les prairies d’or. Murūj al-dhahab, a cura di Barbier de Meynard, Charles e Abel Pavet de Courteille, 5 voll., Paris: Société Asiatique.
  390. C.MacEvitt (2007) (a cura di), The Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa: Apocalypse, the First Crusade, and the Armenian Diaspora, ed. Christopher MacEvitt, "DOP" 61: 157-181.
  391. R. Bedrosian (2017) (a cura di), Matthew of Edessa’s Chronicle, ed. Robert Bedrosian, Long Branch (NJ).
  392. J. Matthews (1989), The Roman Empire of Ammianus, Baltimore (MD).
  393. T. May (2006), The Training of an Inner Asian Nomad Army in the Pre-Modern Period, "The Journal of Military History" 70.3, pp. 617-635.
  394. T. May (2007), The Mongol Art of War, Yardley (PA).
  395. T. May (2012), The Mongol conquests in world history, London.
  396. S. Mecit (2014), The Rum Seljuqs: Evolution of a Dynasty, London.
  397. A.I. Melyukova (1990), The Schytians and the Sarmatians, in The Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia, a cura di D. Sinor, Cambridge cit., pp. 97-117.
  398. Š.A. Meschia-Ja. Cincadze (1958), Iz istoria russo-gruzinskich vzaimootnošenij X-XVIII vv., Tbilisi.
  399. M. Meško (2011), Notes sur la chronologie de la guerre des Byzantines contre les Petchénègues (1083-1091), "Byzantinoslavica" 69.1-2, pp. 134-148.
  400. M. Meško (2020), Nomad influences in the Byzantine army under Alexios I Komnenos (1081-95), in G. Theotokis-M. Meško (a cura di), War in Eleventh-Century Byzantium, London, pp. 60-80.
  401. L. Arbusow, A. Bauer (1955) (a cura di), Heinrici Chronicon Livoniae. Editio altera, Monumenta Germaniae Historica, SS rer-Germ, XXXI, Hanover: 1184-1227.
  402. L. Wiland (1874) (a cura di), Emonis Chronicon, Monumenta Germaniae Historica, MGH, SS, XXIII, Hannover 1874.
  403. A. Kaldellis, D. Krallis (2012) (a cura di), The History of Michael Attaleiates, Cambridge (MA): Harvard University Press.
  404. F. Miklosisch (1884), Die türkischen Elemente in den südost- und osteuroäischen Sprachen, Wiener, Akademie 1884.
  405. F. Miklosisch (1866), Etymologisches Wörterbuch der Slavischen Sprachen, Wien 1886.
  406. V. Minorsky (1953), Studies in Caucasian History, Cambridge 1953.
  407. M. Mitchiner (1987), Evidence for Viking-Islamic trade provided by Samanid silver coinage, "East and West" 37-1/4 (1987), pp. 139-150.
  408. M. Mladenovic (1962), Turkish Language Influence upon the Balkan Slavs, "Études Slaves et Est-Européennes" 7/1-2 (1962) 13-22.
  409. G. Moravcsik (1946), Byzantine Christianity and the Magyars in the Period of their Migration "American Slavic and East European Review" 5.3-4 (1946) pp. 29-45.
  410. D.O. Morgan (1987), The Mongols, Oxford.
  411. E.M. Murphy et al. (2013), Iron Age pastoral nomadism and agriculture in the eastern Eurasian steppe: implications from dental palaeopathology and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes, "Journal of Archaeological Science" 40 (2013), pp. 2547-2560.
  412. G. Musca (1962), Carlo Magno e Hārūn al Rashīd, Bari.
  413. Mustawfī (1913), Hamdullah Mustawfi-I Qazwinî, Ta’rikh-i Guzida, a cura di Browne, Edward, G., and Raynold A. Nicholson, Leiden-London.
  414. A.V. Nazarenko (2009), Drevnjaja Rus’ i slavjane (istoriko-filologičeskie issledovanija), Moskva.
  415. M. Nicasie (1998), Twilight of Empire: The Roman Army from the Reign of Diocletian until the Battle of Adrianople. Leiden-Boston.
  416. J.L. Van Dieten (1975), Nicetae Choniatae Historia, ed. Jean Louis Van Dieten, Berlin: De Gruyter.
  417. D.M. Nicol (1997), Byzantium and Venice. A Study in Diplomatic and Cultural Relations, Cambridge.
  418. D.M. Nicol (2002), The Last Centuries of Byzantium, 1261-1453, Cambridge.
  419. D. Nicolle (2013), Manzikert 1071. The Breaking of Byzantium, Oxford.
  420. L. Niederle (1923), Manuel de l’Antiquité Slave, Paris.
  421. L. Niederle (1931), Rukovêt Slovanské archeologie, Praha.
  422. H. Magoulias (1984) (a cura di), O city of Byzantium, Annals of Niketas Coniatēs, ed. Herry J. Magoulias, Detroit: Wayne State University Press.
  423. T.S. Noonan (1980), When and how dirhams first reached Russia: a numismatic critique of the Pirenne theory, "Cahiers du monde russe et soviétique", 11, pp. 401-469.
  424. T.S. Noonan (1983), Russia’s Eastern Trade, 1150-1350. The Archaeological Evidence, "Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi" 3, pp. 201-264.
  425. T.S. Noonan (1992), Rus', Pechenegs, and Polovtsy: economic interaction along the steppe frontier in the pre-Mongol Era, "Russian history" 19.1-4, pp. 301-326.
  426. T.S. Noonan (1995-97), The Khazar Economy, "Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi" 9, pp. 253-318.
  427. T.S. Noonan (2000), European Russia, c. 500-c. 1050, in The New Cambridge Medieval History, vol. III, Non Carolingian Europe, a cura di T. Reuter, Cambridge, pp. 485-513.
  428. T.S. Noonan (2007), Some Observations on the Economy of the Khazar Khaganate in The World of the Khazars: New Perspectives. Selected Papers from the Jerusalem 1999 International Khazar Colloquium, a cura di P.B. Golden, H. Ben-Shammai, and A. Róna-Tas, Brill, Leiden-Boston, pp. 207-244.
  429. L.S. Northrup (1990), Muslim-Christian Relations During the Reign of the Mamluk Sultan al-Mansur Qalawun, AD 1278-1290, in M. Gervers and R.J. Bikhazi (a cura di), Conversion and Continuity: Indigenous Christian Communities in Islamic Lands, Eighth to Eighteenth Centuries, Toronto, pp. 253-61.
  430. L.S. Northrup (1998), From Slave to Sultan: The Career of Al-Manṣūr Qalāwūn and the Consolidation of Mamluk Rule in Egypt and Syria (678-689 A.H./1279-1290 A.D.), Stuttgart.
  431. L.S. Northrup (1998), The Baḥrī Mamlūk sultanate, 1250-1390, in The Cambridge History of Egypt, vol. I, a cura di M.W. Daly, Cambridge, pp. 242-289
  432. A.N. Nasonov (1950), Novgorodskaja Pervaja Letopis’. Staršego e Mladšego Izvodov, Moskva-Leningrad.
  433. D. Oboloenski (1974), Il commonwealth bizantino. L’Europa Orientale dal 500 al 1453, Laterza, Roma-Bari.
  434. N. Oikonomidès (1964), Contribution à l'étude de la pronoia au XIIIe siècle. Une formule d'attribution de parèques à un pronoïaire, "Revue des études byzantines" 22.1, pp. 158-175.
  435. G. Ortalli-G. Ravegnani-P. Schreiner (2007), Quarta crociata: Venezia, Bisanzio, impero latino, a cura di G. Ortalli, G. Ravegnani e P. Schreiner, 2 voll., Venezia.
  436. G. Ostrogorsky (2014), Storia dell’Impero Bizantino, Torino.
  437. D. Ostrowski (1998), Muscovy and the Mongols. Cross-cultural influences on the steppe frontier, 1304-1589, Cambridge.
  438. A. Hofmeister (1984) (a cura di), Ottonis episcopi Frisingensis Chronica, sive Historia de duabus civitatibus, ed. Adolf Hofmeister, Hannover: Hahn.
  439. J. Paul (2004), Perspectives nomades: État et structures militaires, "Annales" 59.5/6, pp. 1079-1081.
  440. M. Pavan, La battaglia di Adrianopoli (378) e il problema gotico nell'impero romano, in Tra classicità e Cristianesimo. Scritti raccolti in memoria, Roma 1999, pp. 427-436.
  441. A.C.S. Peacock (2006), The Saljūq Campaign against the Crimea and he Exapnsionist Policy of the Early Reign of ‘Alā’ al-Dīn Kayqubād, "Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland" 16-2, pp. 133-149.
  442. AC.S. Peacock (2010), Early Seljuq History: A New Interpretation, Oxford.
  443. A.C.S. Peacock (2015), The Great Seljuk Empire, Edinburg.
  444. A.C.S. Peacock-S.N. Yildiz (2013), The Seljuks of Anatolia: Court and Society in the Medieval Middle East, London.
  445. A. Benisch (1856) (a cura di), Travels of Rabbi Petachia of Ratisbon, trans. Abraham Benisch, London: Trubner.
  446. V. Petrukhin (2007), Khazaria and Rus’: An examination of their historical relations, in The World of the Khazars: New Perspectives. Selected Papers from the Jerusalem 1999 International Khazar Colloquium, a cura di P.B. Golden, H. Ben-Shammai, and A. Róna-Tas, Brill, Leiden-Boston, pp. 245-268.
  447. E.T. Saronne (1992), Pianto sulla distruzione di Rjazan’ (Povest’ o Nikole Zaraskom), a cura di Edgardo T. Saronne, Parma: Pratiche.
  448. D. Pipes (1981), Slave Soldiers and Islam: The Genesis of a Military System, New Haven (CT)-London.
  449. S.A. Pletnëva (1958), Pečenegi, torki i polovcy v južnorusskich stepjach. Trudy Volgo-Donskoj archeologičeskoj ekspedicii, I, in Materialy i Issledovanija po Archeologii SSSR, 62, Moskva-Leningrad.
  450. S.A. Pletnëva (1971), Polovcy, Moskva.
  451. S.A. Pletnëva (1975), Poloveckaja zemlja, Drevenerusskie knjažestva X-XIII vv., Moskva.
  452. S.A. Pletnëva (1976), Chazari, Moskva.
  453. S.A. Pletnëva (1978), Chan Bonjak i ego vremja, "Problemy Archeologii" 2, pp. 174-180.
  454. Z. Pogossian (2017), Locating Religion, Controlling Territory: Conquest and Legitimation in Late Ninth-Century Vaspurakan and its Interreligious Context in Locating Religions. Contact, Diversity, and Translocality, a cura di R. Glei-N. Jaspert, Leiden-Boston, pp. 173-233.
  455. W. Pohl (2002), Die Awaren: ein Steppenvolk im Mitteleuropa, 567-822 n. Chr, München.
  456. W. Pohl (1992), Konfliktverlauf und Konfliktbewältigung: Römer und Barbaren im frühen Mittelalter, "Frühmittelalterliche Studien" 26, pp. 165-207.
  457. W. Pohl (1997), The role of the steppe peoples in Eastern and Central Europe in the first millennium A.D., in Origins of Central Europe, ed. P. Urbanczyk, Warszawa, pp. 65-78.
  458. W. Pohl (1997), Kingdom of the Empire, the integration of Barbarians in Late Antiquity, New York- Leiden-Köln 1997.
  459. W. Pohl (1997), The role of the steppe peoples in Eastern and Central Europe in the first millennium A.D., in Origins of Central Europe, ed. P. Urbanczyk, Warszawa, pp. 65-78.
  460. W. Pohl (1998), Conceptions of Ethnicity in Early Medieval Studies, in Debating the Middle Ages: Issues and Readings, a cura di L. K. Little and B. H. Rosenwein, Oxford-Malden (MA), pp. 13-24.
  461. W. Pohl (2000), Le origini etniche dell’Europa. Barbari e Romani tra antichità e medioevo, Roma.
  462. W. Pohl (2002), Ethnicity, Theory and Tradition. A Response, in On Barbarian Identity. Critical Approaches to Ethnicity in the Early Middle Ages, a cura di A. Gillett, Turnhout.
  463. W. Pohl (2003), A non-roman empire in central Europe: the Avars, in Regna and Gentes. the Relationship between Late Antique and Early medieval Peoples and Kingdoms in the transformation of the Roman World, Brill, Leiden-Boston, pp. 571-595.
  464. W. Pohl (2018), The Avars: A Steppe Empire in Central Europe, 567–822, Cornell (NY), Cornel University Press.
  465. W. Pohl, H. Reimitz (1998), Strategies of distinction: the construction of ethnic communities, 300-800, Leiden.
  466. E.S. Shuckburgh (1962) (a cura di), Histories of Polybius, Repr. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
  467. T.M. Potëmkina (2012), Ierarchija poloveckoj znati (po pogrebenija so statusnymi predmetami), in Stepi Evropy v epochu srednevekov’ja, t. X, Poloveckoe vremja, a cura di A.V. Evglevskij, Doneck, pp. 7-36.
  468. M. Pozza-G. Ravegnani (1993), I trattati con Bisanzio. 992-1198, Venezia.
  469. J. Preiser-Kapeller (2018), The Climate of the Khagan. Observations on palaeo-environmental Factors of the History of the Avars (6th-9th century AD), in Lebenswelten zwischen Archäologie und Geschichte. Festschrift für Falko Daim zu seinem 65, ED. J. in Drauschke et al., Geburtstag.
  470. B. Primov (1962), The papacy, the fourth crusade and Bulgaria, Byzantinobulgarica, 1, pp. 183-211.
  471. O. Pritsak (1953), Der Untergang des Reiches des oġuzischen Yabġu', in Fuad Köprülü armaǧani, Istanbul.
  472. O. Pritsak (1967), Non-wild Polovtsians, in To Honor Roman Jakobson, The Hague-Paris, 2 voll., vol. 2, pp. 1615-23.
  473. O. Pritsak (1978) The Khazar Kingdom's Conversion to Judaism, "Harvard Ukrainian Studies", 2/3, pp. 261-281.
  474. O. Pritsak (1982), The Polovcians and Rus’, "Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi" 2, pp. 321-336.
  475. O. Pritsak (1996), The Turcophone peoples in the area of the Caucasus from the sixth to the eleventh century, in Il Caucaso. Cerniera fra culture dal Mediterraneo alla Persia, secoli IV-XI, Atti delle Settimane di studio del Centro italiano di studi sull'alto Medioevo, 20-26 aprile 1995, Spoleto, pp. 226-245.
  476. D. Comparetti (1985) (a cura di), Procopio di Cesarea, La Guerra Gotica, 2 voll., Roma: Istituto Storico Italiano.
  477. Lavrent’evskaja letopis’ (1926-1928), Pol'noe sobranie russkich letopis'ej, Tom. I, Leningrad.
  478. Ipat’evskaja letopis’ (1908), Pol'noe sobranie russkich letopis'ej, Tom. 2, Sankt Petersburg.
  479. Novgorodskaja pervaja letopis’ (2000), Pol'noe sobranie russkich letopis'ej, Tom. 3, Moskva.
  480. Nikonovskaja letopis’ (2000), Pol'noe sobranie russkich letopis'ej, Tom. 9-13, Moskva.
  481. Pskovskie letopisi (2003), Pol'noe sobranie russkich letopis'ej, Tom. 5.1, Moskva.
  482. Pskovskie letopisi (2000), Pol'noe sobranie russkich letopis'ej, Tom. 5.2, Moskva.
  483. Tverskie letopisi (1999), Pol'noe sobranie russkich letopis'ej, Tom. 15, Tver’.
  484. L. Pubblici (2004), La costruzione di un popolo: Timujin e l’unificazione turco-mongola, "Quaderni del MaES"VII, pp. 3-33.
  485. L. Pubblici (2018), Dal Caucaso al mar d’Azov. L’impatto dell’invasione mongola in Caucasia fra nomadismo e società sedentaria (1204-1295), Firenze.
  486. B.M. Pudalov (2001), Pis’mennye Istočniki po istorii Nižegorodskogo kraja (XIII-načalo XVIII veka): Učebnoe posobie, Nižnij Novgorod.
  487. E. Quatremère (1836), Histoire des Mongols de la Perse, t. I. Paris: Imprimerie Royale.
  488. D.E. Queller, T.F. Madden (1999) (a cura di), The Fourth Crusade: The Conquest of Constantinople, Philadelphia (PA).
  489. J.A. Boyle (1971) (a cura di), The Successors of Genghis Khan, New York: Columbia University Press.
  490. W.M. Thackston (1998) (a cura di)Rashiduddin Fazlullah's Jami'ü't-Tawarikh: Compendium of Chronicles: A History of the Mongols, Harvard (MS): Harvard University Press.
  491. L.A. Ketgurov, O.I. Smirnova (1952) (a cura di), “Jami’ at-tawarikh.” Sbornik Letopis’ej, tomo I (2 voll.), O.I Moskva-Leningrad.
  492. A.K. Arends (1957) (a cura di), “Jami’ at-tawarikh.” Sbornik Letopis’ej, vol. III, Baku.
  493. Ju.P. Verkovskij (1960) (a cura di), “Jami’ at-tawarikh.” Sbornik Letopis’ej,, tomo. II trad. e cura di Ju.P. Verkovskij, Moskva-Leningrad.
  494. L. Rásonyi (1935), Contributions à l’histoire des premières cristallisations d’Etat des Roumanis. L’origine des Basarabas, "AECO", I, pp. 221-253.
  495. D.A. Rasovskij (1935), Polovcy, "Annaly Instituta im. N.P. Kondakova", VII, pp. 161-182.
  496. D.A. Rasovskij (1939), Rol’ polovcev v vojnax Asenej s vizantijskoj i latinskoj imperijami v 1186-1207gg., "Spisanie na B’lgarskaja Akademija na naukite" 58, pp. 203-211.
  497. D.A. Rasovskij (1940), Voennaja istorija polovcev, "Annaly Instituta im. N.P. Kondakova" 11, pp. 95-127.
  498. D.A. Rasovskij (1983), Pečeneghi, torki i berendei na Rusi i v Ugri, "Annaly Instituta im. N.P. Kondakova" V, pp. 9-18.
  499. G. Ravegnani (2012), La caduta dell'Impero romano, Bologna.
  500. F. Remotti (1998), Contro l’identità, Roma-Bari, Laterza.
  501. G. Reuschle (1858), Handbuch der Geographie, oder neueste Erdbeschreibung, mit besondere Rücksicht auf Statistik, Topographie und Geschichte, Stuttgart, Schweizerbart.
  502. J. Richard (1998), La papauté et les missions d’Orient au Moyen Âge (XIIIe-XVe siècles), Roma, pp. 20-33.
  503. D.S. Richards (2014) (a cura di), The Annals of the Saljuq Turks. Selections from al-Kāmil fī’l-Ta’rīkh of ‘Izz al-Dīn Ibn al-Athīr, London.
  504. A. Rigo (1989), Monaci esicasti e monaci bogomili: le accuse di messalianismo e bogomilismo rivolte agli esicasti ed il problema dei rapporti tra esicasmo e bogomilismo. Firenze.
  505. A. Rigo (1990), Messalianismo= Bogomilismo. Un'equazione dell'eresiologia medievale bizantina, "Orientalia christiana periodica" 56.1, pp. 53-82.
  506. A. Rigo (1996), Il Bogomilismo bizantino in età paleologa (XIII-XV secolo): fonti e problemi, "Rivista di storia e letteratura religiosa" 32.3, pp. 627-641.
  507. R. De Clari (1886), The Fall of Constantinople, Being the Story of the Fourth Crusade, a cura di Edwin Pearson, New York.
  508. R. De Clari (1974), La conquête de Constantinople, ed. Philippe Lauer, Paris.
  509. R. De Clari (2005), The conquest of Constantinople, ed. Edgar H. McNeal, New York.
  510. M. Rocco (2011), La percezione delle identità etniche barbariche tra antico e tardoantico, "Rivista storica dell’antichità" 41, pp. 235-366.
  511. J.D. Rogers (2012), Inner Asian States and Empires: Theories and Synthesis, "Journal of Archaeological Research" 20-3, pp. 205-256.
  512. A. Róna-Tas (1987), Materialien zur alten Religion der Tūrken, in Synkretismus in den Religionen Zentralasiens, a cura di W. Heissig-H.J. Klimkeit, Wiesbaden.
  513. A. Róna-Tas (2007), The khazars and the Magyars in The World of the Khazars: New Perspectives. Selected Papers from the Jerusalem 1999 International Khazar Colloquium, a cura di P.B. Golden, H. Ben-Shammai, and A. Róna-Tas, Brill, Leiden-Boston, pp. 269-278.
  514. J.P. Roux (1956), Tangri. Essai sur le ciel-dieu des peuples altaiques, "Revue l'Histoire des Religions", 149, pp. 49-82, e 197-230; 150 (1956), pp. 27-54.
  515. J.P. Roux (1958), Notes additionnelles a Tangri le ciel-dieu des peuples altaiques, "Revue de l'Histoire des Religions", 150, pp. 27-54.
  516. J.P. Roux (1958), Notes additionnelles a Tangri le ciel-dieu des peuples altaiques, "Revue de l'Histoire des Religions" 154, pp. 32-66.
  517. J.P. Roux (1962), La religion des Turcs de l’Orkhon des VIIe et VIIIe siècles, "Revue de l’histoire des religions", 161, pp. 1-24 e 199-231.
  518. J.P. Roux (1984), Les religions dans les sociétés Turco-Mongoles, "Revue de l’histoire des religions" 201.4, pp. 393-420.
  519. J.P. Roux (1988), La religion des peuples de la Steppe, in Popoli delle Steppe, Unni, Avari, Ungari, 2 voll., Spoleto, II, pp. 513-532.
  520. P. Jackson (1990) (a cura di), The Mission of Friar William of Rubruck. His Journey to the Court of the Great Khan Möngke, 1253-1255, ed. Peter Jackson, Aldershot: Ashgate.
  521. P. Chiesa (2011) (a cura di), Viaggio in Mongolia. Itinerarium, a cura di Paolo Chiesa, Milano: Mondadori.
  522. S. Hazzard Cross, O. Sherbowitz-Wetzor (1953) (a cura di), The Russian Primary Chronicle: Laurentian Text, Cambridge (MS).
  523. D.H. Kaiser (1992) (a cura di), Russkaja Pravda kratkoj redakcii. The Laws of Rus’. Tenth to Fifteenth Centuries, Salt Lake City (UT).
  524. L. Russo (2001), Le fonti della ‘prima crociata’ in Mediterraneo Medievale. Cristiani, musulmani ed eretici tra Europa e Oltremare (secoli IX-XIII), a cura di M. Meschini, pp. 51-65.
  525. B.A. Rybakov (1948), Istorija Kul’tury Drevnej Rusi. Domongol’skij period, 2 voll. Moskva-Leningrad.
  526. B.A. Rybakov (1982), Kievskaia Rus' i russkie kniažestva XII-XIII vv., Moskva.
  527. K.V. Ryžov (2004), Vce monarchi mira. Musul’manskij Vostok 7-15vv., Moskva.
  528. K.S. Šanijazov (1974), K ètničeskoi istorii uzbekskogo naroda, Tashkent.
  529. J.J. Saunders (1971), The history of the Mongol conquests, Philadelphia (PA).
  530. J.J. Saunders (1978), A History of Medieval Islam, Oxford.
  531. D.G. Savinov (1979), Ob osnovnych ètapach razvitija ètnokul’ turnoj obščnosti kypčakov in Istorija archeologija i ètnografija Sibiri, a cura di V.I. Matjuščenko, Tomsk.
  532. A.V. Sazanov (2014), Kogda že Vladimir vzjal v Korsun’? Spory o datach, in Srednevekovyj Cherson, X-XIvv., Moskva, pp. 63-231.
  533. A.V. Sazanov, N.A. Alekseenko, A. G. Gercen (2014) (a cura di), Srednevekoviy Cherson. X-XI vv., Moskva.
  534. I.P. Sbriziolo (1971) (a cura di)Racconto dei tempi passati, Torino.
  535. W. Scheidel (2013), Studying the State in The Oxford Handbook of the State in the Ancient Near East and Mediterranean, a cura P. F. Bang, W. Scheidel, Oxford-New York, pp. 5-57.
  536. W.C. Schultz (1998), The monetary history of Egypt, 642-1517, in The Cambridge History of Egypt, vol. I, a cura di M.W. Daly, Cambridge, pp. 318-338.
  537. P. Sénac-P. Cressier (2012), Histoire du Maghreb médiéval: VIIe-XIe siècle, Paris.
  538. A. Sevim (1998), The origins of the Seljuqs and the establishment of Seljuq power in the Islamic lands up to 1055, in History of Civilisations of Central Asia, IV: The Age of Achievement: AD 750 to the end of the fifteenth century. Part One: The Historical, social and economic setting, a cura di M.S. Asimov- C.E. Bosworth, Paris , 4/1, 150-160.
  539. M.A. Shaban (1979), The 'Abbāsid Revolution, Cambridge.
  540. J. Shepard (2006), Closer Encounters wit the Byzantine World: The Rus at the Straits of Kerch in Pre-Modern Russia and its World. Essays in Honor of Thomas S. Noonan, a cura di K.L. Reyerson, T.G. Stavrou, J.D. Tracy, Wiesbaden, pp. 15-78.
  541. C. De Boor (1887), Theophylacti Simocattae Historiae, Leipzig.
  542. M. Whitby, Ma. Whitby (1986) (a cura di), Theophylact Simocatta. The History of Theophylact Simocatta, Oxford.
  543. S. Sindbæk, J. Lind, L. Bjerg (2013) (a cura di), From Goths to Varangians. Communication and Cultural Exchange Between the Baltic and the Black Sea, Aarhus.
  544. D. Sinor (1952), Un voyageur du treizième siècle: Julien d’hongrie, "Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies" 14.3, pp. 589-602.
  545. D. Sinor (1972), Horse and Pasture in Inner Asian History "Oriens Extremus" 19, pp. 171-183.
  546. D. Sinor (1981), The Inner Asian Warriors, "Journal of the American Oriental Society", 101, p. 133-144.
  547. D. Sinor (1990), The Hun period, in The Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia, a cura di D. Sinor, Cambridge, pp. 177-205.
  548. D. Sinor (1990), Introduction: The Concept of Inner Asia, in The Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia, a cura di D. Sinor, Cambridge, pp. 1-18.
  549. D. Sinor (1996), The First Turk Empire, in History of Civilizations of Central Asia. Vol. III, The Crossroads of Civlizations AD 250 to 750, a cura di B. A. Litvinsky, Co-ed. Z. Guang-da and R. Shabani Samghabadi, UNESCO, Paris, pp. 322-329.
  550. T.D. Skrynnikova (1989), Sakral'nost' Pravitelia v Predstavleniiakh Mongolov XIII v. "Narody Azii i Afriki", 1, pp. 67-75.
  551. E.Č. Skržinskaja (2000), Rus’, Italija i Vizantija v Srednevekov’e, Sankt Peterburg, pp. 36-89.
  552. J. Wortley (2010) (a cura di), A Synopsis of Byzantine History: 811-1057, a cura di John Wortley, Cambridge.
  553. A.I. Sobolevskij (1910), Neskol’ko étimologičeskich nazvanij, "Russkij filologičeskij žurnal", t. LXIV, p. 175.
  554. V. Spinei (2003), The Great Migrations in the East and South East of Europe, from the Ninth to the Thirteenth Century, Cluj.
  555. V. Spinei (2008), The Cuman bishopric - genesis and evolution, in The Other Europe in the Middle Ages. Avars, Bulgars, Khazars and Cumans, ed. F. Curta and R. Kovalev, Leiden-Boston, pp. 413-455.
  556. V. Spinei (2009), The Romanians and the Turkic Nomads North of the Danube Delta from the Tenth to the Mid-Thirteenth Century, Leiden-Boston.
  557. B. Spuler (1952), Iran in früh-islamischer Zeit: Politik, Kultur, Verwaltung und öffentliches Leben zwischen der arabischen und der seldschukischen Eroberung, 633 bis 1055, Wiesbaden.
  558. B. Spuler (1970), The Disintegration of the Caliphate in the East, in The Cambridge History of Islam, vol. 1A: The Central Islamic Lands from Pre-Islamic Times to the First World War, a cura di by P.M. Holt, A.K.S. Lambton, B. Lewis, Cambridge, pp. 143-174.
  559. B. Spuler (2014), Iran in the Early Islamic Period: Politics, Culture, Administration and Public Life between the Arab and the Seljuk Conquests, 633-1055, Leiden-Boston.
  560. S.F. Starr (2013), Lost Enlightenment: Central Asia’s Golden Age, from the Arab Conquest to Tamerlane, Princeton (NJ)-Oxford.
  561. T. Stepanov (2010), The Bulgars and the Steppe Empire in the Early Middle Ages: The Problem of the Others, Leiden.
  562. T. Stepanov (2019), Waiting for the end of the World. European Dimensions, 950-1200, Leiden-Boston.
  563. L. Stephens et al. (2019), Archaeological assessment reveals Earth's early transformation through land use, "Science" 365, pp. 897–902.
  564. T. Stephenson ( 2004), Byzantium Transformed, c. 950-1200, "Medieval Encounters" 10, pp. 185-210.
  565. T. Stephenson (2009), Byzantium’s Balkan Frontier. A Political Study of the Northern Balkans, 900–1204, Cambridge.
  566. M. Sticker (2000), The Islamic World in Ascendancy: From the Arab Conquests to the Siege of Vienna, Westport (CT).
  567. N.A. Stillman (1998), The non-Muslim communities: the Jewish community, in The Cambridge History of Egypt, vol. I, a cura di M.W. Daly, Cambridge, pp. 198-210.
  568. G.T. Dennis (1984) (a cura di), Maurice’s Stratègikon. Handbook of Byzantine Military Strategy, Philadelphia (PA).
  569. R.E. Sullivan (1966), Khan Boris and the Conversion of Bulgaria: A Case Study of the Impact of Christianity on a Barbarian Society, "Studies in Medieval and Renaissance History" 3, pp. 55-139.
  570. S. Szádeczky-Kardoss (1990), The Avars, in The Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia, a cura di D. Sinor, Cambridge, cit., pp. 206-224.
  571. M. Tamm, L. Kaljundi, C. Selchjensen (2017), Crusading and the Chronicle writing on the Meideval Baltic Frontier. A Companion to the Chronicle of Herny of Livonia, London 2017.
  572. R. Mitchell, N. Forbes (1914), The Chronicle of Novgorod, 1016-147, London.
  573. B. Todorov (2010), The value of empire: tenth-century Bulgaria between Magyars, Pechenegs and Byzantium, "Journal of Medieval History" 36.4, pp. 312-326.
  574. P.P. Toločko (2003), Kočevye narody stepej i kievskaja Rus’, Sankt Peterburg.
  575. V. Topencharov (1981), Questions of Bogomilism, "Southeastern Europe" 8.1, pp. 48-63.
  576. M. Tosi (1996), "Dalla tribù all'impero. Riflessioni sul Caucaso, le steppe ed i meccanismi dell'evoluzione sociale alla luce dei dati archeologici", in Il Caucaso. Cerniera fra culture dal Mediterraneo alla Persia, secoli IV-XI, Atti delle Settimane di studio del Centro italiano di studi sull'alto Medioevo, 20-26 aprile 1995, Spoleto, pp. 247-273.
  577. W.T. Treadgold (1995), Byzantium and its Army, 284-1081, Stanford (CA).
  578. W.T. Treadgold (1997), A History of the Byzantine State and Society, Stanford (CA).
  579. O. Turan (1977), Anatolia in the period of the Seljuks and the beyliks in The Cambridge History of Islam, vol. 1B: The Central Islamic Lands from Pre-Islamic Times to the First World War, a cura di by P.M. Holt, A.K.S. Lambton, B. Lewis, Cambridge, pp. 231-262.
  580. C.J. Tyerman (1995), Were There Any Crusades in the Twelfth Century? "The English Historical Review", 110, pp. 553-577.
  581. C.J. Tyerman (2000), L’invenzione delle crociate, tr. A. Faloppa, Torino, pp. 13-51.
  582. A.L. Udovitch (2011), Partnership and Profit in Medieval Islam, Princeton (NJ).
  583. B. Valota (1993), Storia dell’Europa orientale, Milano, pp. 9-12.
  584. M. Van Berkel et al. (2013) (a cura di), Crisis and Continuity at the Abbasid Court: Formal and Informal Politics in the Caliphate of Al-Muqtadir (295-320/908-32), Leiden-Boston.
  585. Vardan Arewelts’i (2007), Compilation of Histories, ed. Robert Bedrosian, New York 2007. (03-30-20121).
  586. I. Vasary (2005), Cumans and Tatars: Oriental Military in the Pre-Ottoman Balkans, 1185–1365, Cambridge.
  587. V.G. Vasilevskij (1930), Iz istorii Vizantii XII veka, "Trudy" IV, pp. 43-84.
  588. A.A. Vasiliev (1936), The Goths in Crimea, Cambridge (MS).
  589. A.A. Vasiliev (1998), Istorija Vizantijskoj imperii, 2 voll. Aleteja, Moskva.
  590. S.A. Vasjutin (2015), Typology of Pre-States and Statehoods Systems of Nomads, in Nomadic Pathways in Social Evolution, Lac-Beauport.
  591. G. Vernadsky (1959), The Origins of Russia, Clarendon Press, Oxford.
  592. G. Vernadsky (1973), Kievan Russia, Yale University Press, New Haven (CT)-London.
  593. G. De Villehardouin (2008), La conquista di Costantinopoli, a cura di Fausta Garavini. Seconda edizione. Milano: Studio Editoriale.
  594. B.J. Vladimircov (1934), Obščestvennyj stroj mongolov, Moskva-Leningrad.
  595. B.J. Vladimircov (1948), Le régime social des Mongols. Le féodalisme nomade, Parigi.
  596. C. Voughn Findley (2004), The Turks in World History, Oxford.
  597. R.W. Wandelken (2000), The Falling Dominoes, in The Role of Migration in the History of the Eurasian Steppe: Sedentary Civilization vs. 'Barbarian' and Nomad, pp. 229-250.
  598. B. Weiler (2000), Gregory IX, Frederick II, and the liberation of the Holy Land, 1230–1239, in Studies in Church History. The Holy Land, Holy Lands and Christian History, ed. R.N. Swanson, Cambridge, pp. 192-206.
  599. P.S. Wells (2001), Beyond Celts, Germans and Scythians, London.
  600. R. Wenskus (1961), Stammesbildung und Verfassung: das Werden der frühmittelalterlichen gentes, Böhlau, Köln.
  601. C.R. Whittaker, P. Garnsey (2008), Rural life in the later Roman Empire, in The Cambridge Ancient History, XIII: The Late Empire 337-425, a cura di A. Cameron, P. Garnsey, Cambridge-New York (NY) 2008, pp. 277-310.
  602. C. Wickham (2006), Framing the Early Middle Ages: Europe and the Mediterranean, 400-800, Oxford.
  603. T.G. Wilfong (1998), The non-Muslim communities: Christian communities, in The The Cambridge History of Egypt, vol. I, a cura di M.W. Daly, Cambridge cit., pp. 175-197.
  604. R.L. Wolff (1949), The 'Second Bulgarian Empire.' Its Origin and History to 1204, "Speculum" 24-2, pp. 167-206.
  605. R.L. Wolff (2007), The 'Second Bulgarian Empire'. Its Origin and History to 1204, in The Expansion of Orthodox Europe, Byzantium, the Balkans and Russia, ed. J. Shepard, London, pp. 267-306.
  606. E. Wolfram (1988), History of the Goths, Berkeley (CA)-Los Angeles (CA), 1988.
  607. L. Yaacov (1999), Saladin in Egypt, Leiden-Boston.
  608. C.J. Yarnley (1972), Philaretos: Armenian Bandit or Byzantine General, "Revue des études arméniennes" 9, pp. 331-353.
  609. E.A. Zachariadou (1994), The Oğuz Tribes: The Silence of the Byzantine Sources, in Itinéraires d’Orient: Hommages à Claude Cahen, ed. Y. Monsef, Leuven, pp. 285-89.
  610. A. Zajaczkovski (1966), La chronique des Steppes Kiptchak Tevarih-i Dešt-i Qipčaq du XVIIe siècle, Warsaw.
  611. E.G. Browne (1928), Kitāb Zayn al-Akhbār, Berlin-London.
  612. G. Zecchini (2005), Il federalismo nel mondo antico, Milano.
  613. T. Zerial et al. (2002), A Genetic Landscape Reshaped by Recent Events: Y-Chromosomal Insights into Central Asia, "AJHG" 71.3, pp. 466-483.
  614. F. Conca (2010) (a cura di), Zosimo. Storia nuova, Milano.